The Agricultural Biodiversity Assessment is a methodology that combines qualitative and quantitative approaches to assess the biodiversity of plant and animal species both domesticated and wild used for food by human populations in specific locations. In the context of the CGIAR Research Program on Dryland Production Systems and with its support, Bioversity International and partners carried out a series of Assessments in selected sites of Ghana, India, Malawi, Mali and Niger. As a result several datasets have been produced. This document provides a background and an overview of the data that have been collected. It offers the conceptual framework that guided its design, the context in which the Assessment was carried out, and a short description of the protocols and methods used, as well as a link to the documents and datasets.