Replication data for: Predicting climate-change-caused changes in global temperature on potato tuber moth Phthorimaea operculella (Zeller) distribution and abundance using phenology modeling and GIS mapping

Originating from the Andean region and co-evolved with its food plant, the potato (Solanum sp.), the potato tuber moth Phthorimaea operculella (Zeller) has become an invasive potato pest globally. The hypothesis of our present study was that the future distribution and abundance (damage potential) of this pest will be greatly affected by climate-change-caused changes in temperature. We used a process-based climatic phenology model for P. operculella and applied three risk indices (establishment-, generation, and activity index) in a geographic information system (GIS) environment to map and quantify changes for climate change scenarios of the year 2050 based on downscaled climate-change data of the scenario A1B from the WorldClim database. All applications and simulations were made using the Insect Life Cycle Modeling (ILCYM) software recently developed by The International Potato Center, Lima, Peru. The study concludes that there are three possible main scenarios of changes that may simultaneously occur: (1) the P. operculella damage potential will progressively increase in all regions where the pest already prevails today with an excessive increase in warmer cropping regions of the tropics and subtropics. In regions where P. operculella is established and develops >4 generations per year, economic losses are likely to occur; under the current climate, >4 generations are developed on 30.1% of the total potato production area worldwide, which will increase until the year 2050 to 42.4%, equal to an increase of 2,409,974 ha of potato under new infestation. (2) A range expansion in temperate regions of the northern hemisphere with additionally 8.6% (699,680 ha), 4.2% (32,873 ha), and 2.7% (234,404 ha) of the potato production area under higher risk in Asia, North America, and Europe, with moderate increases of its damage potential. (3) A range expansion in tropical temperate mountainous regions with a moderate increase of its damage potential; e.g., in Bolivia, Ecuador and Peru 44,281 ha, 9569 ha, and 39,646 ha of potato will be under new risk of infestation. The ILCYM software allowed a detailed analysis of possible climate-change-induced changes in temperature on P. operculella distribution and damage potential. Further, this tool offers means of overcoming limitations in predictions and mapping experienced with climate data interpolation and resolution by spatial point-by-point simulations at locations of interest. The methodology is proposed as a very helpful tool for adaptation planning in integrated pest management.

Cassava Weed Management Data – On farm trials 2016

The ‘Sustainable Weed Management Technologies for Nigeria’ was a 5-year project that was developed and assessed with smallholder farmer participation modern, relevant and appropriate cassava weed management technologies suitable for sustainable intensification in major agro-ecological (humid rainforest, forest transition savanna and southern Guinea savanna) and socio-economic conditions of Nigeria. An important goal of the project was to help smallholder cassava growers achieve sustainable increases in their productivity and incomes through the development and adoption of improved weed control methods. The project evaluated enhanced cassava agronomy, including judicious, safe use of herbicides, toward improved weed management, across 4 states in Nigeria where cassava is central to food security and livelihoods of 4.5 million farm families.

Though Nigeria is still the global leader in the overall production of cassava with about 50 million tons on 3.8 million hectares, average yields in Nigeria are only about half of those in leading countries in Asia, and less than half of those typical from researcher-run trials in Nigeria. Diverse factors are responsible for low productivity on about 4.5 million cassava farms, but poor weed management is generally among the principal factors. Weed control in the humid tropics is always a challenge, but compared to most other field crops, weed control in cassava systems is much more demanding. The crop is in the field for a long time (12 to 18 months), and is sown at wide spacing, resulting in ample opportunity for weeds to occupy space under the cassava canopy and reduce productivity. Although weeds are one of the most important constraints to improving cassava productivity; for high yields, good weed control needs to be coupled with improved varieties sown in the right densities at the right time. Adequate plant nutrition and pest control are also important; however, such inputs will not result in better yields if weeds are not controlled.

Hand weeding is the predominant weed control practice on smallholder cassava farms. Conventionally, farmers weed cassava three times, but in cassava farms where perennial weeds, such as Imperata, are predominant, extra hoe weeding may be required. Weeding takes 50 to 80% of the total labor budget. Up to 200-500 hours of labor for mostly women and children per ha are needed to prevent economic cassava root losses in Nigeria. IITA and its partners are therefore, through this project conducted research that developed innovative weed management practices, combining improved varieties, proper planting dates, plant populations, and plant nutrition, all coupled to intercropping and tillage options, through well-focused trials in the three agro-ecologies where cassava dominates in Nigeria. Herbicides, meeting globally accepted conventions and safety thresholds appropriate for smallholders, were tested for efficacy and economic merit. Multi-location on-station/off-station trials were followed with participatory farmer evaluations. Extension manuals and other tools for farmer and applicator learning were developed.

Results from this project showed that with appropriate weed management couple with best cassava agronomy cassava growers in can more than double the national yield average in Nigeria.

Rajasthan Focus Group Discussions Data: Dataset

A series of focus group discussions (FGDs) to elicit the local knowledge about the agricultural and wild biodiversity present in the study areas in order to generate: (a) an inventory (list) of all useful plant, and animal species used by local communities for human food and their local names; (b) an inventory of all foods consumed; (c) an inventory of markets that people in the village attend. "In each of the eight villages, one focus group discussion was held, but including both men and women participants. Each group will deal with the three aspects for discussion: Useful biological diversity in the production system; Market diversity; and Dietary diversity. There were between 10-16 participants in each group. Each group tried to include a cross-section of individuals involved in agricultural production or at least collecting useful plants from common lands and the wild, representing different levels of access to land (land owners, local land renters and migrant land renters), different ethnic groups present in the village and different age groups (special emphasis should be placed to include younger farmers). For each group there were two facilitators, one to guide the exercise and the other to document the process (take notes, photographs, etc.). The data were elicited using the four-square methodology explained in the Protocol document." Eight villages of three districts were surveyed: (Balmer, Jaisalmer and Jodhpur) in the State of Rajasthan: Damodara (26°54′,70°43′); Deda (26°94′,70°43′); Dedhu, (27°20′, 71°45′); Dhirasar (25°27′, 71°11′); Dhok (25°29′, 71°01′); Govindupura (26°49′, 73°05′); Mansagar (26°45′, 73°08′); Meghwalo Ki Dhani (27.3711° N, 72.2334° E, this village was not part of the household survey)

Mali Focus Group Discussions Data

A series of focus group discussions (FGDs) to elicit the local knowledge about the agricultural and wild biodiversity present in the study areas in order to generate: (a) an inventory (list) of all useful plant, and animal species used by local communities for human food, animal feed, medicine, fuel, housing, farming tools, etc. and their local names; (b) an inventory of all foods consumed; (c) an inventory of species and products bought and sold in markets that people in the village attend. Two FGDs per village in three villages. FGDs were held separately for men and women in order to collect gender disaggregated data
In each of the three villages, two focus group discussions were held separately. One with men and the other with women. Each group will deal with the three aspects for discussion:
Useful biological diversity in the production system; Market diversity; and Dietary diversity. There were between 10-16 participants in each group. Each group tried to include a cross-section of individuals involved in agricultural production or at least collecting useful plants from common lands and the wild, representing different levels of access to land (land owners, local land renters and migrant land renters), different ethnic groups present in the village and different age groups (special emphasis should be placed to include younger farmers). For each group there were two facilitators, one to guide the exercise and the other to document the process (take notes, photographs, etc.). The data were elicited using the four-square methodology explained in the Protocol document.
The three villages survey were in the Sikasso District of Mali: Fakoro (Lat 12°13074, Lon 005°20156); Kani (Lat 12°15011, Lon 005°10827); N’goutjina (Lat 12°17961, Lon 005°28372)

Replication Data for: Marando Bora Project Baseline Survey

The Marando Bora (MB) project was implemented by the International Potato Center (CIP) in collaboration with 12 other partners in the Lake Zone region, Tanzania from October 2009 to June 2012. The project’s aim was to improve the quantity and quality of food for 150,000 Tanzanian households in the Lake Zone region by strengthening the availability and accessibility of quality planting material of improved and local sweetpotato varieties. The specific objectives of the MB project were to provide: i) high yielding and consumer preferred sweetpotato varieties; ii) orange-fleshed sweetpotato (OSFP) varieties with adequate supplies of beta-carotene to tackle Vitamin A deficiency (VAD) problem; iii) disease free planting materials for increased root and vine production; iv) timely access to vines for early planting; v) training for decentralized vines multipliers (DVMs) and farmers about vines conservation and maintenance of vine quality; vi) communication products to enhance awareness about benefits of using disease-free vines, benefits of OFSP varieties, and sources of quality sweetpotato vines. The MB project’s theory of change (TOC) was to improve food and nutrition security and enhance farmers’ incomes by implementing several activities including production and distribution of clean planting materials; training farmers’ about vines conservation; training of farmer multipliers and provision of improved white and orange fleshed SP varieties among others.
The Marando Bora Baseline survey objective was to address the main problems associated with sweetpotato vine availability and distribution by developing a sustainable seed system for sweetpotato. It used voucher and mass distribution strategies to address these problems. Using decentralized vine multipliers in the communities and mass distribution, the project ensured timely access to planting vines at the beginning of the rainy season.

Mali Household Surveys for Agricultural Biodiversity Assessment: Dataset

To identify and quantify the number of all plant and animal species (domesticated and wild) and within each species, the number of types/varieties/breeds at the household-level that are: (a) grown on farm and home garden, or collected from the wild; (b) consumed as part of the diet; and (c) purchased and sold in the study sites. Information was collected for each species on its place of production or collection (farm, home garden, collected in the wild, etc.), the objective for its production or collection (Self-consumption, sale in the market, both), its different uses (food, medicine, animal feed, building material, processing, etc.), seasonality, the number of types, varieties and breeds recognized and used, key characteristics of its seed system (sources of seed, transactions and social relationships), and the water regime associated with its production (rainfed, irrigated, water harvest, etc.). Also data on assets and other socioeconomic indicators were collected. A household survey was carried out with a representative random sample of 60 households per village in three villages in the region of Sikasso in Mali (part of the Wa, Bobo and Sikasso transect where the CRP Dryland System is working in West Africa). Two of the villages (Fakoro and Kani) were also part of overall baseline survey conducted by ICRISAT. A third village, N’goutjina, was added by Bioversity. The total sample size is 180 households. The three villages in the Sikasso District of Mali: were: Fakoro (Lat 12°13074, Lon 005°20156); Kani (Lat 12°15011, Lon 005°10827); N’goutjina (Lat 12°17961, Lon 005°28372)

Rajasthan Household Surveys for Agricultural Biodiversity Assessment: Dataset

To identify and quantify the number of all plant and animal species (domesticated and wild) at the household-level that are: (a) grown on farm and home garden, or collected from the wild; (b) consumed as part of the diet; and (c) purchased and sold in the study sites. Information was collected for each species on its place of production or collection (farm, home garden, collected in the wild, etc.), the objective for its production or collection (Self-consumption, sale in the market, both), its different uses (food, medicine, animal feed, building material, processing, etc.), seasonality, the number of types, varieties and breeds recognized and used, key characteristics of its seed system (sources of seed, transactions and social relationships), and the water regime associated with its production (rainfed, irrigated, water harvest, etc.). Also data on assets and other socioeconomic indicators were collected. A household survey was carried out with a representative random sample of 30 households per village in eight villages of three districts (Balmer, Jaisalmer and Jodhpur) in the State of Rajasthan: Damodara (26°54′,70°43′); Deda (26°94′,70°43′); Dedhu, (27°20′, 71°45′); Dhirasar (25°27′, 71°11′); Dhok (25°29′, 71°01′); Govindupura (26°49′, 73°05′); Mansagar (26°45′, 73°08′); Sankadiya (27°29′,71°41′). The total sample size is 240 households

CELL5M: A Multidisciplinary Geospatial Database for Africa South of the Sahara

Spatially-explicit data is increasingly becoming available across disciplines, yet they are often limited to a specific domain. In order to use such datasets in a coherent analysis, such as to decide where to target specific types of agricultural investment, there should be an effort to make such datasets harmonized and interoperable. For Africa South of the Sahara (SSA) region, the HarvestChoice CELL5M Database was developed in this spirit of moving multidisciplinary data into one harmonized, geospatial database. The database includes over 750 biophysical and socio-economic indicators, many of which can be easily expanded to global scale. The CELL5M database provides a platform for cross-cutting spatial analyses and fine-grain visualization of the mix of farming systems and populations across SSA. It was created as the central core to support a decision-making platform that would enable development practitioners and researchers to explore multi-faceted spatial relationships at the nexus of poverty, health and nutrition, farming systems, innovation, and environment. The database is a matrix populated by over 350,000 grid cells covering SSA at five arc-minute spatial resolution. Users of the database, including those conduct researches on agricultural policy, research, and development issues, can also easily overlay their own indicators. Numerical aggregation of the gridded data by specific geographical domains, either at subnational level or across country borders for more regional analysis, is also readily possible without needing to use any specific GIS software. See the HCID database (http://dx.doi.org/10.7910/DVN/MZLXVQ) for the geometry of each grid cell. The database also provides standard-compliant data API that currently powers several web-based data visualization and analytics tools.

Malawi Household Surveys for Agricultural Biodiversity Assessment: Dataset

To identify and quantify all the useful plant, animal, and aquatic species utilized by rural households and communities in the Dryland Systems CRP sites, as well as information on markets attended and general socioeconomic household characteristics. Within each species, the number of types/varieties/breeds at the household-level that are: (a) grown on farm and home garden, or collected from the wild; (b) consumed as part of the diet; and (c) purchased and sold in the study sites. Information was collected for each species on its place of production or collection (farm, home garden, collected in the wild, etc.), the objective for its production or collection (Self-consumption, sale in the market, both), its different uses (food, medicine, animal feed, building material, processing, etc.), seasonality, the number of types, varieties and breeds recognized and used, key characteristics of its seed system (sources of seed, transactions and social relationships), and the water regime associated with its production (rainfed, irrigated, water harvest, etc.). Socioeconomic data collected were: family size, land owned and cultivated, water resources, housing, ownership of consumer goods, sources of income, social networking etc. This information will be used to characterize three dimensions of ABD: (1) diversity in the production system, including on farm and common lands; (2) dietary diversity; and (3) market diversity; in terms of the elements and relationships involved and the exogenous factors that influence their status and dynamics. These data will be the basis for analyzing the roles of ABD (Agricultural Biodiversity) in the lives and livelihoods of these rural populations in order to identify entry points for designing and implementing interventions that contribute to improve their well-being. A household survey with a representative random sample of 50 households per village for the sections/villages sampled for overall baseline survey in the Ntcheu District of Malawi. Data was collected from from sections/villages selcted from extension areas (EPAs). The total sample size is 340 households. Four extenstion planning areas in the Ntcheu District of Malawi were surveyed: Manjawira, Nsipe, Sharpevale and Tsangano