General Household Survey, Panel 2012-2013

In the past decades, Nigeria has experienced substantial gaps in producing adequate and timely data to inform policy making. In particular, the country is lagging behind in producing sufficient and accurate agricultural production statistics. The current set of household and farm surveys conducted by the NBS covers a wide range of sectors. Except for the Harmonized National Living Standard Survey (HNLSS) which covers multiple topics, these different sectors are usually covered in separate surveys none of which is conducted as a panel. As part of the efforts to continue to improve data collection and usability, the NBS has revised the content of the annual General household survey (GHS) and added a panel component. The GHS-Panel is conducted every 2 years covering multiple sectors with a focus to improve data from the agriculture sector.

The Nigeria General Hosehold Survey-Panel, is the result of a partnership that NBS has established with the Federal Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development (FMA&RD), the National Food Reserve Agency (NFRA), the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation (BMGF) and the World Bank (WB). Under this partnership, a method to collect agricultural and household data in such a way as to allow the study of agriculture’s role in household welfare over time was developed. This GHS-Panel Survey responds to the needs of the country, given the dependence of a high percentage of households on agriculture activities in the country, for information on household agricultural activities along with other information on the households like human capital, other economic activities, access to services and resources. The ability to follow the same households over time, makes the GHS-Panel a new and powerful tool for studying and understanding the role of agriculture in household welfare over time as it allows analyses to be made of how households add to their human and physical capital, how education affects earnings and the role of government policies and programs on poverty, inter alia.

The objectives of the survey are as follows
i Allowing welfare levels to be produced at the state level using small area estimation techniques resulting in state-level poverty figures
ii With the integration of the longitudinal panel survey with GHS, it will be possible to conduct a more comprehensive analysis of poverty indicators and socio-economic characteristics
iii Support the development and implementation of a Computer Assisted Personal Interview (CAPI) application for the paperless collection of GHS
iv Developing an innovative model for collecting agricultural data
v Capacity building and developing sustainable systems for the production of accurate and timely information on agricultural households in Nigeria.
vi Active dissemination of agriculture statistics

The second wave consists of two visits to the household: the postplanting visit occurred directly after the planting season to collect information on preparation of plots, inputs used, labour used for planting and other issues related to the planting season. The post-harvest visit occurred after the harvest season and collected information on crops harvested, labour used for cultivating and harvest activities, and other issues related to the harvest cycle.

Weed Ecology and Weed Management Strategies for Dry-Seeded Rice in Asia

Rice is a principal source of food for more than half of the world population, and more than 90% of rice worldwide is grown and consumed in Asia. A change in establishment method from manual transplanting of rice seedlings to dry-seeded rice (DSR) has occurred in some countries as growers respond to increased costs or decreased availability of labor or water. However, weeds are a major constraint to DSR production because of the absence of the size differential between the crop and the weeds and the suppressive effect of standing water on weed growth at crop establishment. Herbicides are used to control weeds in DSR, but because of concerns about the evolution of herbicide resistance and a scarcity of new and effective herbicides, there is a need to integrate other weed management strategies with herbicide use. In addition, because of the variability in the growth habit of weeds, any single method of weed control cannot provide effective and season-long control in DSR. Various weed management approaches need to be integrated to achieve effective, sustainable, and long-term weed control in DSR. These approaches may include tillage systems; the use of crop residue; the use of weed-competitive cultivars with high-yield potential; appropriate water depth and duration; appropriate agronomic practices, such as row spacing and seeding rates; manual or mechanical weeding; and appropriate herbicide timing, rotation, and combination. This article aims to provide a logical perspective of what can be done to improve weed management strategies in DSR.

AfricaRISING Project- Local agro-ecological knowledge as a basis for sustainable intensification of tree- crop- livestock systems in the Ethiopian highlands: Sinana Woreda, Oromo Region

This study provides results from local knowledge studies conducted in Endamahoni woreda, Tigray region, Ethiopia. The local knowledge was used as a means of understanding fine-scale variation in a non-homogeneous smallholder system in the wheat-belt of the Ethiopian highlands. The research was supported through the USAID funded project Africa RISING (Research in Sustainable Intensification for the Next Generation). The project was launched as part of the US government’s Feed the Future initiative to address global hunger and food security issues in key farming systems in sub-Saharan Africa. This study was focused on identifying existing sustainable intensive agricultural methods. The study also collected local knowledge on agricultural methods so as to assist in the development and implementation of appropriately adapted technologies to intensify production of crops, livelihood and household production without extending the areas subject to cultivation. Research Objectives The research objectives of the study were: · To characterize agro-ecological knowledge of farmers in the Africa RISING project sites · To identify and map out community resources · To assess land use and livelihood strategies at the household level · To characterize existing tree cover and assess the drivers of tree cover change · To determine temporal variation in availability of provisioning services (income, fuel, livestock feed, crops, labor.)

Growth and Biomass of Tree Lucerne under Farmers Management

This data study contains data on tree Lucerne particularly tree height, diameter, survival, and biomass yield to evaluate its growth performance in Africa RISING sites.

About the project

Project title: Integrating tree Lucerne (Chamaetysisus palmensis) in the crop-livestock farming systems of the Ethiopian highlands for multiple products and service

Project abstract

Tree Lucerne is a nitrogen fixing, fast growing and ecologically adaptable multipurpose plant species that is considered for evaluation in the Africa RISING sites. Integration of tree Lucerne in the crop-livestock farming systems is aimed at contributing to income diversification, improving crop and livestock productivity and enhancing the participation of women and children in the research process to benefit them equitably. This research is conducted in the 4 Africa RISING sites. Two research kebles are used in eah site. Tree Lucerne Farmer Research Groups (FRGs) formed in each of the Africa RISING research kebeles. The number of farmers engaged in the FRGs varies from 23-56 and representing a range of social groups.

Project website: http://africa-rising.net

Project start date: 05/01/2014

Project end date : 12/30/2016

Rice in cropping systems – Modelling transitions between flooded and non-flooded soil environments

Water shortages in many rice-growing regions, combined with growing global imperatives to increase food production, are driving research into increased water use efficiency and modified agricultural practices in rice-based cropping systems. Well-tested cropping systems models that capture interactions between soil water and nutrient dynamics, crop growth, climate and management can assist in the evaluation of new agricultural practices. The APSIM model was designed to simulate diverse crop sequences, residue/tillage practices and specification of field management options. It was previously unable to simulate processes associated with the long-term flooded or saturated soil conditions encountered in rice-based systems, due to its heritage in dryland cropping applications. To address this shortcoming, the rice crop components of the ORYZA2000 rice model were incorporated and modifications were made to the APSIM soil water and nutrient modules to include descriptions of soil carbon and nitrogen dynamics under anaerobic conditions. We established a process fo
r simulating the two-way transition between anaerobic and aerobic soil conditions occurring in crop sequences of flooded rice and other nonflooded crops, pastures and fallows. These transitions are dynamically simulated and driven by modeled hydraulic variables (soil water and floodwater depth). Descriptions of floodwater biological and chemical processes were also added. Our assumptions included a simplified approach to modelling O2 transport processes in saturated soils. The improved APSIM model was tested against diverse, replicated experimental datasets for rice-based cropping systems, representing a spectrum of geographical locations (Australia, Indonesia and Philippines), soil types, management practices, crop species, varieties and sequences. The model performed equally well in simulating rice grain yield during multi-season crop sequences as the original validation testing reported for the stand-alone ORYZA2000 model simulating single crops. This suggests robustness in APSIM’s simulation of the rice-growing environment and provides evidence on the usefulness of our modifications and practicality of our assumptions. Aspects of particular strength were identified (crop rotations; response to applied fertilizers; the performance of bare fallows), together with areas for further development work (simulation of retained crop stubble during fallows, greenhouse gas emissions). APSIM is now suitable to investigate production responses of potential agronomic and management changes in rice-based cropping systems, particularly in response to future imperatives linked to resource availability, climate change, and food security. Further testing is required to evaluate the impact of our simplified assumptions on the model’s simulation of greenhouse gas emissions in rice-based cropping systems.

Rapid Characterisation of Farming Systems in Africa RISING- Ghana

This data study contains household and community survey data in support of Africa RISING farming systems analysis.


About the project

Project title: AfricaRISING- Sustainable Intensification of Maize-Legume-Livestock Integrated Farming Systems in East and Southern Africa

Project abstract

Sustainable intensification of mixed crop livestock systems is a key pathway towards better food security, improved livelihoods and a healthy environment. As part of the US government’s Feed the Future initiative to address hunger and food security issues in sub-Saharan Africa, the US Agency for International Development (USAID) is supporting three multi-stakeholder agricultural research projects to sustainably intensify key African farming systems. In East and Southern Africa the project is being implemented in Tanzania and Malawi, and Zambia. – In Tanzania the project is being implemented in Babati and Kongwa districts in Manyara region of northern Tanzania and Kiteto district in Dodoma region, central Tanzania. The action sites were selected to acknowledge agroecological differences, allow appropriate targeting of technologies and strategies, and complement the development efforts of another USAID-supported program, the Tanzania Staples Value Chain (NAFAKA) project. – In Malawi, the project is being implemented in Ntechu and Dedza districts in central Malawi where maize-based productions systems are dominant. Agroecological considerations guided the identification of research action sites. The pilot site for the study will be Eastern and Lusaka Provinces in Zambia.

Project website: http://africa-rising.net

Project start date: 01/04/2013

Project end date : 01/04/2014


Rapid Characterisation of Farming Systems in Africa RISING-Malawi

This data study contains data from a household and community survey in support of Africa RISING farming systems analysis.

About the project

Project title:
AfricaRISING-Sustainable Intensification of Maize-Legume-Livestock Integrated Farming Systems in East and Southern Africa

Project abstract

Sustainable intensification of mixed crop livestock systems is a key pathway towards better food security, improved livelihoods and a healthy environment. As part of the US government’s Feed the Future initiative to address hunger and food security issues in sub-Saharan Africa, the US Agency for International Development (USAID) is supporting three multi-stakeholder agricultural research projects to sustainably intensify key African farming systems. In East and Southern Africa, the project is being implemented in Tanzania, Malawi, and Zambia. In Tanzania, the project is being implemented in Babati and Kongwa districts in Manyara region of northern Tanzania and Kiteto district in Dodoma region, central Tanzania. The action sites were selected to acknowledge agroecological differences, allow appropriate targeting of technologies and strategies, and complement the development efforts of another USAID-supported program, the Tanzania Staples Value Chain (NAFAKA) project. In Malawi, the project is being implemented in Ntechu and Dedza districts in central Malawi where maize-based productions systems are dominant. Agroecological considerations guided the identification of research action sites. The pilot site for the study will be Eastern and Lusaka Provinces in Zambia.

Project website: http://africa-rising.net

Project start date: 01/04/2013

Project end date :01/04/2014

A Decade of Plant Proteomics and Mass Spectrometry: Translation of Technical Advancements to Food Security and Safety Issues

Tremendous progress in plant proteomics driven by mass spectrometry (MS) techniques has been made since 2000 when few proteomics reports were published and plant proteomics was in its infancy. These achievements include the refinement of existing techniques and the search for new techniques to address food security, safety, and health issues. It is projected that in 2050, the world’s population will reach 9-12 billion people demanding a food production increase of 3-70% (FAOQ3, 2009. How to feed the world in 2050, high-level expert forum. Rome: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations) from today’s food production. Provision of food in a sustainable and environmentally committed manner for such a demand without threatening natural resources, requires that agricultural production increases significantly and that postharvest handling and food manufacturing systems become more efficient requiring lower energy expenditure, a decrease in postharvest losses, less waste generation and food with longer shelf life. There is also a need to look for alternative protein sources to animal based (i.e., plant based) to be able to fulfill the increase in protein demands by 2050. Thus, plant biology has a critical role to play as a science capable of addressing such challenges. In this review, we discuss proteomics especially MS, as a platform, being utilized in plant biology research for the past 10 years having the potential to expedite the process of understanding plant biology for human benefits. The increasing application of proteomics technologies in food security, analysis, and safety is emphasized in this review. But, we are aware that as no unique approach/technology is capable to address the global food issues. Proteomics-generated information/resources must be integrated and correlated with other omics-based approaches, information, and conventional programs to ensure sufficient food and resources for human development now and in the future.

Productivity and Sustainability of the RiceeWheat Cropping System in the Indo-Gangetic Plains of the Indian subcontinent: Problems, Opportunities, and Strategies

Rice and wheat are the staple foods for almost the entire Asian population and therefore they occupy a premium position among all food commodities. The era of the Green Revolution started during the early 1970s with wheat and rice and since then the ricee-heat cropping system of the Indo-Gangetic Plains has played a significant role in the food security of the region. However, recent years have witnessed a significant slowdown in the yield growth rate of this system and the sustainability of this important cropping system is at risk due to second-generation technology problems and mounting pressure on natural resources. Traditional cultivars and conventional agronomic practices are no longer able to even maintain the gains in productivity achieved during the past few decades. Demand for food is increasing with the increasing population and purchasing power of consumers. The ricewheat cropping system is labor-, water-, and energy-intensive and it becomes less profitable as these resources become increasingly scarce and the problem is aggravated with deterioration of soil health, the emergence of new weeds, and emerging challenges of climate change. Therefore, a paradigm shift is required for enhancing the system’s productivity and sustainability. Resource-cons
erving technologies involving zero- or minimum-tillage in wheat, dry direct seeding in rice, improved water- and nutrient-use efficiency, innovations in residue management to avoid straw burning, and crop diversification should assist in achieving sustainable productivity and allow farmers to reduce inputs, maximize yields, increase profitability, conserve the natural resource base, and reduce risk due to both environmental and economic factors. A number of technological innovation and diversification options have been suggested to overcome the system’s sustainability problems but some of them have not been fully embraced by the farmers as these are expensive, knowledge-intensive, or do not fit into the system and have resulted in some other unforeseen problems. Different concerns and possible strategies needed to sustain the riceewheat cropping system are discussed in this review on the basis of existing evidence and future challenges.