Impact of sustainable intensification technologies on on-farm agricultural diversity in Africa RISING communities of Ghana

The project aimed at testing the hypothesis that the application of sustainable intensification technologies (cereal-legume-vegetable-livestock integrated systems) by smallholder households in North Ghana changes the level of inter and intra-specific crop diversity managed on-farm at household level. The project included two main activities: (1) analyses of the baseline socioeconomic survey data gathered by IFPRI and IITA from a diversity perspective; and (2) implementation and analysis of a series of focus group discussions in 12 communities to assess the overall diversity of plant species that households manage and derive benefits from.

Study title: Focus Group Discussions-Agrobiodiversity Assessment

Study description: A series of FGDs in 12 communities were carried out during the earlier part of 2016. The objective of FGDs on agricultural biodiversity was to elicit the local knowledge about the agricultural and useful wild biodiversity present in the study areas in order to generate: (a) an ordered inventory (list) of all useful plants used by local communities for human food, animal feed, medicine, fuel, etc. and their local names; and (b) an inventory of species and other products bought and sold in markets that people attend. The aim was to have a subjective assessment of the overall diversity of species households manage and derive benefits from, how important each species is and how it contributes to the household’s food and income, as well as how it is used.

Project website: http://africa-rising.net

Project start date: 07/01/2015

Project end date : 06/30/2016

Replication Data for: Market Segmentation Strategies for the Dissemination of New Agricultural Production Technologies: Experimental Delivery of Laser Land Leveling to Farmers in Uttar Pradesh, India

This dataset contains observations from 478 households interviewed in 2011 and 2012 as part of a study titled “Market segmentation strategies for the dissemination of new agricultural production technologies in India.” The data were collected as part of a demand elicitation exercise and randomized control trial of custom-hired laser land leveling services provided to study participants. The study was conducted in the Maharajganj, Gorakhpur, and Deoria districts of eastern Uttar Pradesh, India under the auspices of the Cereal Systems Initiative for South Asia (CSISA). These three districts represent the regional spectrum of productivity in rice–wheat cropping systems. From each district, eight villages were randomly selected from a population of villages that met specific criteria set forth in the publications noted above. In addition to household data on the study participants, the dataset contains information on 926 plots cultivated by the study participants. Aside from household survey data, this study also contains data from village, social network, and monitoring surveys.

A&T India Maternal Nutrition Baseline Survey 2017: Auxiliary Nurse Midwife

This dataset is the result of the frontline health workers/auxiliary nurse midwife (ANM) survey that was conducted to gather data for the Maternal Nutrition Baseline as a part of an impact evaluation study of the Alive & Thrive (A&T) interventions delivered through the Reproductive, Maternal, Newborn, Child Health (RMNCH) services in India. These include provision of iron and folic acid (IFA) and calcium supplements, interpersonal counseling on diet during pregnancy and consumption of IFA and calcium, community mobilization, and adequate weight-gain monitoring during pregnancy.



A&T is a global initiative that supports the scaling up of nutrition interventions to save lives, prevent illnesses, and contribute to healthy growth and development through improved maternal nutrition, breastfeeding and complementary feeding practices.



Using a cluster randomized evaluation design, the primary objectives of the A&T evaluation study in India are to answer the following questions :

1) Can the coverage and utilization of key maternal nutrition interventions be improved by integrating nutrition-focused social behavior change (SBC) communication and systems strengthening approaches into antenatal care (ANC) services under the RMNCH program?

2) What factors affect effective integration of maternal nutrition interventions into a well-established government ANC service delivery platform under the RMNCH program?

3) What are the impacts of the program on i) consumption of diversified foods and adequate intake of micronutrient, protein, and energy compared to recommended intake; ii) intake of IFA and calcium supplements during pregnancy; iii) weight gain monitoring; and iv) early initiation of breastfeeding.


The baseline survey was conducted in 26 blocks in Uttar Pradesh. Thirteen blocks from two districts (Kanpur Dehat and Unnao) were randomly allocated to receive intensified maternal nutrition interventions. Another 13 blocks from the same two districts were randomly allocated to the comparison groups. The survey took place between October and December 2017 by the team from International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI), in collaboration with the survey firm, NEERMAN (Network for Engineering and Economics Research and Management).



The baseline survey comprised 7 questionnaires: 1) Household questionnaire for recently delivered women (RDW) with children <6 months of age, 2) Household questionnaire for pregnant women (PW) of the second and third trimester of pregnancy (with detailed dietary recall), 3) Household questionnaire for husbands of PWs and husbands of RDWs, 4) Household questionnaire for mothers/mothers-in-law of PWs and mothers/mothers-in-law of RDWs, 5) Frontline health workers: Anganwadi workers (AWW), 6) Frontline health workers: Accredited Social Health Activist (ASHA), and 7) Frontline health workers: Auxiliary Nurse Midwife (ANM).



The auxiliary nurse midwife (ANM) survey (along with the other 2 FLW’s surveys: AWW, and ASHA) gathered data on service provision by government FLWs and other health care providers. Data were also gathered on FLWs’ time commitment, knowledge, and training related to maternal nutrition, and their job motivation, and supervision.

A&T India Maternal Nutrition Baseline Survey 2017: Households – Pregnant Women

This dataset is the result of the household/pregnant women (PW) survey that was conducted to gather data for the Maternal Nutrition Baseline as a part of an impact evaluation study of the Alive & Thrive (A&T) interventions delivered through the Reproductive, Maternal, Newborn, Child Health (RMNCH) services in India. These include provision of iron and folic acid (IFA) and calcium supplements, interpersonal counseling on diet during pregnancy and consumption of IFA and calcium, community mobilization, and adequate weight-gain monitoring during pregnancy.


A&T is a global initiative that supports the scaling up of nutrition interventions to save lives, prevent illnesses, and contribute to healthy growth and development through improved maternal nutrition, breastfeeding and complementary feeding practices.



Using a cluster randomized evaluation design, the primary objectives of the A&T evaluation study in India are to answer the following questions :

1) Can the coverage and utilization of key maternal nutrition interventions be improved by integrating nutrition-focused social behavior change (SBC) communication and systems strengthening approaches into antenatal care (ANC) services under the RMNCH program?

2) What factors affect effective integration of maternal nutrition interventions into a well-established government ANC service delivery platform under the RMNCH program?

3) What are the impacts of the program on i) consumption of diversified foods and adequate intake of micronutrient, protein, and energy compared to recommended intake; ii) intake of IFA and calcium supplements during pregnancy; iii) weight gain monitoring; and iv) early initiation of breastfeeding.



The baseline survey was conducted in 26 blocks in Uttar Pradesh. Thirteen blocks from two districts (Kanpur Dehat and Unnao) were randomly allocated to receive intensified maternal nutrition interventions. Another 13 blocks from the same two districts were randomly allocated to the comparison groups. The survey took place between October and December 2017 by the team from International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI), in collaboration with the survey firm, NEERMAN (Network for Engineering and Economics Research and Management).


The baseline survey comprised 7 questionnaires: 1) Household questionnaire for recently delivered women (RDW) with children <6 months of age, 2) Household questionnaire for pregnant women (PW) of the second and third trimester of pregnancy (with detailed dietary recall), 3) Household questionnaire for husbands of PWs and husbands of RDWs, 4) Household questionnaire for mothers/mothers-in-law of PWs and mothers/mothers-in-law of RDWs, 5) Frontline health workers: Anganwadi workers (AWW), 6) Frontline health workers: Accredited Social Health Activist (ASHA), and 7) Frontline health workers: Auxiliary Nurse Midwife (ANM).



The household survey for pregnant women (PW) captured the main impact indicators for A&T (consumption of IFA and calcium, maternal dietary diversity, quantity and quality of diet, breastfeeding practices), use of NC services and exposure to A&T’s intervention platforms, and a variety of other data related to the use of the interventions. This included data on caregiver knowledge and perceptions about maternal nutrition, caregiver resources (such as education, physical and mental health, decision-making power, and domestic violence) and household resources (such as household composition, socioeconomic status, and food security).

A&T India Maternal Nutrition Baseline Survey 2017: Anganwadi workers

This dataset is the result of the frontline health workers/anganwadi workers (AWW) survey that was conducted to gather data for the Maternal Nutrition Baseline as a part of an impact evaluation study of the Alive & Thrive (A&T) interventions delivered through the Reproductive, Maternal, Newborn, Child Health (RMNCH) services in India. These include provision of iron and folic acid (IFA) and calcium supplements, interpersonal counseling on diet during pregnancy and consumption of IFA and calcium, community mobilization, and adequate weight-gain monitoring during pregnancy.



A&T is a global initiative that supports the scaling up of nutrition interventions to save lives, prevent illnesses, and contribute to healthy growth and development through improved maternal nutrition, breastfeeding and complementary feeding practices.



Using a cluster randomized evaluation design, the primary objectives of the A&T evaluation study in India are to answer the following questions :

1) Can the coverage and utilization of key maternal nutrition interventions be improved by integrating nutrition-focused social behavior change (SBC) communication and systems strengthening approaches into antenatal care (ANC) services under the RMNCH program?

2) What factors affect effective integration of maternal nutrition interventions into a well-established government ANC service delivery platform under the RMNCH program?

3) What are the impacts of the program on i) consumption of diversified foods and adequate intake of micronutrient, protein, and energy compared to recommended intake; ii) intake of IFA and calcium supplements during pregnancy; iii) weight gain monitoring; and iv) early initiation of breastfeeding.


The baseline survey was conducted in 26 blocks in Uttar Pradesh. Thirteen blocks from two districts (Kanpur Dehat and Unnao) were randomly allocated to receive intensified maternal nutrition interventions. Another 13 blocks from the same two districts were randomly allocated to the comparison groups. The survey took place between October and December 2017 by the team from International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI), in collaboration with the survey firm, NEERMAN (Network for Engineering and Economics Research and Management).



The baseline survey comprised 7 questionnaires: 1) Household questionnaire for recently delivered women (RDW) with children <6 months of age, 2) Household questionnaire for pregnant women (PW) of the second and third trimester of pregnancy (with detailed dietary recall), 3) Household questionnaire for husbands of PWs and husbands of RDWs, 4) Household questionnaire for mothers/mothers-in-law of PWs and mothers/mothers-in-law of RDWs, 5) Frontline health workers: Anganwadi workers (AWW), 6) Frontline health workers: Accredited Social Health Activist (ASHA), and 7) Frontline health workers: Auxiliary Nurse Midwife (ANM).



The anganwadi workers (AWW) survey (along with the other 2 FLW’s surveys: ASHA and ANM) gathered data on service provision by government FLWs and other health care providers. Data were also gathered on FLWs’ time commitment, knowledge, and training related to maternal nutrition, and their job motivation, and supervision.

Focus Group Discussions-Agrobiodiversity Assessment

The project aimed at testing the hypothesis that the application of sustainable intensification technologies (cereal-legume-vegetable-livestock integrated systems) by smallholder households in North Ghana changes the level of inter and intra-specific crop diversity managed on-farm at household level. The project included two main activities: (1) analyses of the baseline socioeconomic survey data gathered by IFPRI and IITA from a diversity perspective; and (2) implementation and analysis of a series of focus group discussions in 12 communities to assess the overall diversity of plant species that households manage and derive benefits from.

Study title: Focus Group Discussions-Agrobiodiversity Assessment

Study description: A series of FGDs in 12 communities were carried out during the earlier part of 2016. The objective of FGDs on agricultural biodiversity was to elicit the local knowledge about the agricultural and useful wild biodiversity present in the study areas in order to generate: (a) an ordered inventory (list) of all useful plants used by local communities for human food, animal feed, medicine, fuel, etc. and their local names; and (b) an inventory of species and other products bought and sold in markets that people attend. The aim was to have a subjective assessment of the overall diversity of species households manage and derive benefits from, how important each species is and how it contributes to the household’s food and income, as well as how it is used.

Project website: http://africa-rising.net

Project start date: 07/01/2015

Project end date : 06/30/2016

A&T India Maternal Nutrition Baseline Survey 2017: Accredited Social Health Activist

This dataset is the result of the frontline health workers/accredited social health activist (ASHA) survey that was conducted to gather data for the Maternal Nutrition Baseline as a part of an impact evaluation study of the Alive & Thrive (A&T) interventions delivered through the Reproductive, Maternal, Newborn, Child Health (RMNCH) services in India. These include provision of iron and folic acid (IFA) and calcium supplements, interpersonal counseling on diet during pregnancy and consumption of IFA and calcium, community mobilization, and adequate weight-gain monitoring during pregnancy.



A&T is a global initiative that supports the scaling up of nutrition interventions to save lives, prevent illnesses, and contribute to healthy growth and development through improved maternal nutrition, breastfeeding and complementary feeding practices.



Using a cluster randomized evaluation design, the primary objectives of the A&T evaluation study in India are to answer the following questions :

1) Can the coverage and utilization of key maternal nutrition interventions be improved by integrating nutrition-focused social behavior change (SBC) communication and systems strengthening approaches into antenatal care (ANC) services under the RMNCH program?

2) What factors affect effective integration of maternal nutrition interventions into a well-established government ANC service delivery platform under the RMNCH program?

3) What are the impacts of the program on i) consumption of diversified foods and adequate intake of micronutrient, protein, and energy compared to recommended intake; ii) intake of IFA and calcium supplements during pregnancy; iii) weight gain monitoring; and iv) early initiation of breastfeeding.


The baseline survey was conducted in 26 blocks in Uttar Pradesh. Thirteen blocks from two districts (Kanpur Dehat and Unnao) were randomly allocated to receive intensified maternal nutrition interventions. Another 13 blocks from the same two districts were randomly allocated to the comparison groups. The survey took place between October and December 2017 by the team from International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI), in collaboration with the survey firm, NEERMAN (Network for Engineering and Economics Research and Management).



The baseline survey comprised 7 questionnaires: 1) Household questionnaire for recently delivered women (RDW) with children <6 months of age, 2) Household questionnaire for pregnant women (PW) of the second and third trimester of pregnancy (with detailed dietary recall), 3) Household questionnaire for husbands of PWs and husbands of RDWs, 4) Household questionnaire for mothers/mothers-in-law of PWs and mothers/mothers-in-law of RDWs, 5) Frontline health workers: Anganwadi workers (AWW), 6) Frontline health workers: Accredited Social Health Activist (ASHA), and 7) Frontline health workers: Auxiliary Nurse Midwife (ANM).



The accredited social health activist (ASHA) survey (along with the other 2 FLW’s surveys: AWW and ANM) gathered data on service provision by government FLWs and other health care providers. Data were also gathered on FLWs’ time commitment, knowledge, and training related to maternal nutrition, and their job motivation, and supervision.

Ethiopia Alive & Thrive Baseline Survey 2010: Community

This dataset is the result of the community survey that was conducted to gather data at baseline as a part of the impact evaluation of the Alive & Thrive (A&T) interventions in Ethiopia. The broad objective of the impact evaluation in Ethiopia is to measure the impact of A&T’s community-based interventions, delivered through the government’s health extension program (HEP) platform, in the reduction of stunting and improvement of IYCF practices in two regions where the IFHP operates, namely Tigray and SNNPR (Southern Nations, Nationalities, and People’s Region).

A&T is a six-year initiative to facilitate change for improved infant and young child feeding (IYCF) practices at scale in Bangladesh, Ethiopia, and Viet Nam. The goal of A&T is to reduce avoidable death and disability due to suboptimal IYCF in the developing world by increasing exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) until 6 months of age and reducing stunting of children 0-24 months of age.


The Ethiopia baseline survey had two broad objectives. The first objective was to gather data on the primary impact indicators of the evaluation, prior to implementation of any A&T interventions, to establish a baseline against which changes would be measured. The second objective was to assess different factors that may influence the outcomes of interest, and thus shape the impact of the primary impact indicators. These factors were determined at five different levels: 1) child, 2) maternal/caregiver, 3) household, 4) community, 5) health care providers, 6) health system. These factors will also provide useful information to interpret the results of the impact evaluation and also signal key issues to pay attention to in the process evaluation.



The Ethiopia baseline survey used five separate questionnaires that aimed to capture elements along the program impact pathways. These tools include 1) a household questionnaire, 2) a staff questionnaire of HEWs, 3) a staff questionnaire of supervisors of HEWs, 4) a VCHP), and 5) a community questionnaire.


The community questionnaire provided information on the following: 1) general characteristics of the cluster: population, number of households’ languages, livelihood, season of food shortage, topography; 2) infrastructure: access to main road (both during dry and rainy season), electricity, access to clean water; 3) distance from the nearest major town, type of transportation used to reach this town; 4) access to the nearest market; 5) migration pattern; 6) social and food assistance, such as presence of productive safety net program, community-based nutrition program, etc.; 7) natural disaster occurring in the area during the three years before the survey; 8) availability and access to health services: health post, government hospital, private clinic, etc.; 9) availability of education facility: junior and high school, college.

The community questionnaire was administered to a group of community members to gather information on the contextual factors related to each community as well as to understand differences in community characteristics across the clusters (enumeration areas (EA)). This information at the community level is critical to control for externalities that could influence the outcome of the program.

Agricultural Science and Technology Indicators: 2019 Global Food Policy Report Annex Table 1

Policymakers recognize that increased investment in
agricultural research is key to increasing agricultural productivity.
Despite this, many low- and middle-income
countries struggle with capacity and funding constraints
in their agricultural research systems.

Agricultural Science and Technology Indicators (ASTI),
facilitated by the International Food Policy Research
Institute (IFPRI) within the portfolio of the CGIAR Research
Program on Policies, Institutions, and Markets, works
with national, regional, and international partners to collect
time series data on the funding, human resource
capacity, and outputs of agricultural research in low- and
middle-income countries. Based on this information, ASTI
produces analysis, capacity-building tools, and outreach
products to help facilitate policies for effective and efficient
agricultural research.


“Agricultural research” includes government, higher education, and nonprofit agencies, but excludes the private for-profit sector. Total agricultural research spending includes salaries, operating and program costs, and capital investments for all agencies, excluding the private for-profit sector, involved in agricultural research in a country. Expenditures are adjusted for inflation and expressed in 2011 prices. Purchasing power parities (PPPs) measure the relative purchasing power of currencies across countries by eliminating national differences in pricing levels for a wide range of goods. PPPs are relatively stable over time, whereas exchange rates fluctuate considerably. In addition to looking at absolute levels of agricultural research investment and capacity, another way of comparing commitment to agricultural research is to measure research intensity—that is, total agricultural research spending as a percentage of agricultural output (AgGDP).

“Total agricultural researchers” (excluding the private for-profit sector) are reported in full-time equivalents (FTEs) to account for the proportion of time researchers actually spend on research activities. A critical mass of qualified agricultural researchers is crucial for implementing a viable research agenda, for effectively communicating with stakeholders, and for securing external funding. Therefore, it is important to look at the share of PhD-qualified researchers. Gender balance in agricultural research is important, given that women researchers offer different insights and perspectives that can help research agencies more effectively address the unique and pressing challenges of female farmers. Age imbalances among research staff should be minimized to ensure the continuity of future research as researchers retire.

A&T India Maternal Nutrition Baseline Survey 2017: Households – Husbands

This dataset is the result of the household/husbands survey that was conducted to gather data for the Maternal Nutrition Baseline as a part of an impact evaluation study of the Alive & Thrive (A&T) interventions delivered through the Reproductive, Maternal, Newborn, Child Health (RMNCH) services in India. These include provision of iron and folic acid (IFA) and calcium supplements, interpersonal counseling on diet during pregnancy and consumption of IFA and calcium, community mobilization, and adequate weight-gain monitoring during pregnancy.



A&T is a global initiative that supports the scaling up of nutrition interventions to save lives, prevent illnesses, and contribute to healthy growth and development through improved maternal nutrition, breastfeeding and complementary feeding practices.



Using a cluster randomized evaluation design, the primary objectives of the A&T evaluation study in India are to answer the following questions :

1) Can the coverage and utilization of key maternal nutrition interventions be improved by integrating nutrition-focused social behavior change (SBC) communication and systems strengthening approaches into antenatal care (ANC) services under the RMNCH program?

2) What factors affect effective integration of maternal nutrition interventions into a well-established government ANC service delivery platform under the RMNCH program?

3) What are the impacts of the program on i) consumption of diversified foods and adequate intake of micronutrient, protein, and energy compared to recommended intake; ii) intake of IFA and calcium supplements during pregnancy; iii) weight gain monitoring; and iv) early initiation of breastfeeding.


The baseline survey was conducted in 26 blocks in Uttar Pradesh. Thirteen blocks from two districts (Kanpur Dehat and Unnao) were randomly allocated to receive intensified maternal nutrition interventions. Another 13 blocks from the same two districts were randomly allocated to the comparison groups. The survey took place between October and December 2017 by the team from International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI), in collaboration with the survey firm, NEERMAN (Network for Engineering and Economics Research and Management).



The baseline survey comprised 7 questionnaires: 1) Household questionnaire for recently delivered women (RDW) with children <6 months of age, 2) Household questionnaire for pregnant women (PW) of the second and third trimester of pregnancy (with detailed dietary recall), 3) Household questionnaire for husbands of PWs and husbands of RDWs, 4) Household questionnaire for mothers/mothers-in-law of PWs and mothers/mothers-in-law of RDWs, 5) Frontline health workers: Anganwadi workers (AWW), 6) Frontline health workers: Accredited Social Health Activist (ASHA), and 7) Frontline health workers: Auxiliary Nurse Midwife (ANM).



The husbands survey provided data on their knowledge of maternal nutrition during pregnancy, and practices to support women to have optimal nutrition during pregnancy and after delivery.