Ghana Focus Group Discussions Data

A series of focus group discussions (FGDs) to elicit the local knowledge about the agricultural and wild biodiversity present in the study areas in order to generate: (a) an inventory (list) of all useful plant, and animal species used by local communities for human food, animal feed, medicine, fuel, housing, farming tools, etc. and their local names; (b) an inventory of all foods consumed; (c) an inventory of species and products bought and sold in markets that people in the village attend. Two FGDs per village in three villages. FGDs were held separately for men and women in order to collect gender disaggregated data.
Geographic area includes: Three villages in the Lawra District of Ghana: Bonpari (Lat 10.67, Lon W002.81); Gbelinkaa (Lat N10.58, Lon W002.83); Yagtuur (Lat N10.55, Lon W 002.86)
In each of the three villages, two focus group discussions were held separately. One with men and the other with women. Each group will deal with the three aspects for discussion:
Useful biological diversity in the production system; Market diversity; and Dietary diversity. There were between 10-16 participants in each group. Each group tried to include a cross-section of individuals involved in agricultural production or at least collecting useful plants from common lands and the wild, representing different levels of access to land (land owners, local land renters and migrant land renters), different ethnic groups present in the village and different age groups (special emphasis should be placed to include younger farmers). For each group there were two facilitators, one to guide the exercise and the other to document the process (take notes, photographs, etc.). The data were elicited using the four-square methodology explained in the Protocol document.

Focus Group Discussions-Agrobiodiversity Assessment

The project aimed at testing the hypothesis that the application of sustainable intensification technologies (cereal-legume-vegetable-livestock integrated systems) by smallholder households in North Ghana changes the level of inter and intra-specific crop diversity managed on-farm at household level. The project included two main activities: (1) analyses of the baseline socioeconomic survey data gathered by IFPRI and IITA from a diversity perspective; and (2) implementation and analysis of a series of focus group discussions in 12 communities to assess the overall diversity of plant species that households manage and derive benefits from.

Study title: Focus Group Discussions-Agrobiodiversity Assessment

Study description: A series of FGDs in 12 communities were carried out during the earlier part of 2016. The objective of FGDs on agricultural biodiversity was to elicit the local knowledge about the agricultural and useful wild biodiversity present in the study areas in order to generate: (a) an ordered inventory (list) of all useful plants used by local communities for human food, animal feed, medicine, fuel, etc. and their local names; and (b) an inventory of species and other products bought and sold in markets that people attend. The aim was to have a subjective assessment of the overall diversity of species households manage and derive benefits from, how important each species is and how it contributes to the household’s food and income, as well as how it is used.

Project website: http://africa-rising.net

Project start date: 07/01/2015

Project end date : 06/30/2016

Ethiopia Alive & Thrive Baseline Survey 2010: Community

This dataset is the result of the community survey that was conducted to gather data at baseline as a part of the impact evaluation of the Alive & Thrive (A&T) interventions in Ethiopia. The broad objective of the impact evaluation in Ethiopia is to measure the impact of A&T’s community-based interventions, delivered through the government’s health extension program (HEP) platform, in the reduction of stunting and improvement of IYCF practices in two regions where the IFHP operates, namely Tigray and SNNPR (Southern Nations, Nationalities, and People’s Region).

A&T is a six-year initiative to facilitate change for improved infant and young child feeding (IYCF) practices at scale in Bangladesh, Ethiopia, and Viet Nam. The goal of A&T is to reduce avoidable death and disability due to suboptimal IYCF in the developing world by increasing exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) until 6 months of age and reducing stunting of children 0-24 months of age.


The Ethiopia baseline survey had two broad objectives. The first objective was to gather data on the primary impact indicators of the evaluation, prior to implementation of any A&T interventions, to establish a baseline against which changes would be measured. The second objective was to assess different factors that may influence the outcomes of interest, and thus shape the impact of the primary impact indicators. These factors were determined at five different levels: 1) child, 2) maternal/caregiver, 3) household, 4) community, 5) health care providers, 6) health system. These factors will also provide useful information to interpret the results of the impact evaluation and also signal key issues to pay attention to in the process evaluation.



The Ethiopia baseline survey used five separate questionnaires that aimed to capture elements along the program impact pathways. These tools include 1) a household questionnaire, 2) a staff questionnaire of HEWs, 3) a staff questionnaire of supervisors of HEWs, 4) a VCHP), and 5) a community questionnaire.


The community questionnaire provided information on the following: 1) general characteristics of the cluster: population, number of households’ languages, livelihood, season of food shortage, topography; 2) infrastructure: access to main road (both during dry and rainy season), electricity, access to clean water; 3) distance from the nearest major town, type of transportation used to reach this town; 4) access to the nearest market; 5) migration pattern; 6) social and food assistance, such as presence of productive safety net program, community-based nutrition program, etc.; 7) natural disaster occurring in the area during the three years before the survey; 8) availability and access to health services: health post, government hospital, private clinic, etc.; 9) availability of education facility: junior and high school, college.

The community questionnaire was administered to a group of community members to gather information on the contextual factors related to each community as well as to understand differences in community characteristics across the clusters (enumeration areas (EA)). This information at the community level is critical to control for externalities that could influence the outcome of the program.

Ethiopia Alive & Thrive Baseline Survey 2010: Households

This dataset is the result of the household survey that was conducted to gather data at baseline as a part of the impact evaluation of the Alive & Thrive (A&T) interventions in Ethiopia. The broad objective of the impact evaluation in Ethiopia is to measure the impact of A&T’s community-based interventions, delivered through the government’s health extension program (HEP) platform, in the reduction of stunting and improvement of IYCF practices in two regions where the IFHP operates, namely Tigray and SNNPR (Southern Nations, Nationalities, and People’s Region).


A&T is a six-year initiative to facilitate change for improved infant and young child feeding (IYCF) practices at scale in Bangladesh, Ethiopia, and Viet Nam. The goal of A&T is to reduce avoidable death and disability due to suboptimal IYCF in the developing world by increasing exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) until 6 months of age and reducing stunting of children 0-24 months of age.


The Ethiopia baseline survey had two broad objectives. The first objective was to gather data on the primary impact indicators of the evaluation, prior to implementation of any A&T interventions, to establish a baseline against which changes would be measured. The second objective was to assess different factors that may influence the outcomes of interest, and thus shape the impact of the primary impact indicators. These factors were determined at five different levels: 1) child, 2) maternal/caregiver, 3) household, 4) community, 5) health care providers, 6) health system. These factors will also provide useful information to interpret the results of the impact evaluation and also signal key issues to pay attention to in the process evaluation.


The Ethiopia baseline survey used five separate questionnaires that aimed to capture elements along the program impact pathways. These tools include 1) a household questionnaire, 2) a staff questionnaire of HEWs, 3) a staff questionnaire of supervisors of HEWs, 4) a VCHP), and 5) a community questionnaire.


The household questionnaire in Ethiopia consisted of 14 different modules covering a wide range of information both for assessing the outcomes of interests as well as factors that influence the uptake and adoption of A&T interventions, such as household food security, socioeconomic status, parental characteristics, maternal knowledge and skills about IYCF, exposure to A&T and other IYCF/nutrition interventions, exposure to media, household gender relationships, and child characteristics, e.g., age, gender, perceptions about size and birth. The questions are largely based on previously validated questions or modules.

Assessment of Sustainable Intensification Practices in Babati District

The survey aimed at collecting data on five sustainable intensification domains which the Africa RISING project was established to assess the contribution of the project in improving vegetable farming practices. The domains are: productivity, economic, environment, social and human condition. This survey covered the vegetable theme/components and the data was collected from among vegetable growing households. Around 310 farmers were interviewed, the sample in each village constitute over 50% of the total vegetable growing population.

Ethiopia Alive & Thrive Baseline Survey 2010: Health Extension Workers

This dataset is the result of the health extension workers (HEW) survey that was conducted to gather data at baseline as a part of the impact evaluation of the Alive & Thrive (A&T) interventions in Ethiopia. The broad objective of the impact evaluation in Ethiopia is to measure the impact of A&T’s community-based interventions, delivered through the government’s health extension program (HEP) platform, in the reduction of stunting and improvement of IYCF practices in two regions where the IFHP operates, namely Tigray and SNNPR (Southern Nations, Nationalities, and People’s Region).


A&T is a six-year initiative to facilitate change for improved infant and young child feeding (IYCF) practices at scale in Bangladesh, Ethiopia, and Viet Nam. The goal of A&T is to reduce avoidable death and disability due to suboptimal IYCF in the developing world by increasing exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) until 6 months of age and reducing stunting of children 0-24 months of age.


The Ethiopia baseline survey had two broad objectives. The first objective was to gather data on the primary impact indicators of the evaluation, prior to implementation of any A&T interventions, to establish a baseline against which changes would be measured. The second objective was to assess different factors that may influence the outcomes of interest, and thus shape the impact of the primary impact indicators. These factors were determined at five different levels: 1) child, 2) maternal/caregiver, 3) household, 4) community, 5) health care providers, 6) health system. These factors will also provide useful information to interpret the results of the impact evaluation and also signal key issues to pay attention to in the process evaluation.



The Ethiopia baseline survey used five separate questionnaires that aimed to capture elements along the program impact pathways. These tools include 1) a household questionnaire, 2) a staff questionnaire of health extension workers (HEW), 3) a staff questionnaire of supervisors of HEWs, 4) a volunteer community health promoters (VCHP), and 5) a community questionnaire.


Three types of health staff questionnaires (HEW, VCHP, and supervisors) were applied to health staff who are closest to the community or work in the community.


In the Health Extension Program (HEP), the key frontline health workers (FHWs) are the health extension workers (HEWs).


The health extension workers (HEW) questionnaire (along with the other two health workers questionnaires (VCHP and supervisors)) aimed at assessing three major issues: 1) frequency of interactions between health staff and caregivers, and avenues for these interactions; 2) content of the discussion between caregivers and health staff, and the time spent on IYCF-related discussions; and 3) knowledge and training received by the health staff on IYCF. In addition, the frontline health worker questionnaires capture the organizational context within which FHWs deliver their interventions. These are captured by inclusion of questions on perceptions related to their workload and their level of satisfaction with their overall job. This is particularly important to capture volunteer workers who receive no salary.

PROMIS Burkina Faso Baseline Data 2014, Child Level

The dataset contains baseline data of the impact evaluation in Burkina Faso of the “Innovative Approaches for the Prevention of Childhood Malnutrition” (PROMIS) project, which integrated a preventive intervention package into Community Management for Acute Malnutrition (CMAM) programming in Burkina Faso and Mali. Using cluster-randomized designs, we evaluated the impact of integrating preventive services into screening for child acute malnutrition on acute malnutrition screening and treatment coverage and acute malnutrition prevalence and incidence. The PROMIS program sought to address the low screening coverage in Burkina Faso by integrating two preventive interventions into the screening at monthly well-baby consultations offered at the health center:

    (1) behavior change communication on essential nutrition and hygiene actions to improve child nutrition and health-seeking behavior, including for malnutrition;

    (2) the provision of a small-quantity lipid-based nutrient supplement (SQ-LNS) to all children to increase intake of essential nutrients (and prevent undernutrition) and to incentivize caregivers to participate regularly in acute malnutrition screening.


The intervention was implemented by Helen Keller International through the national health system. Data were collected by the International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI) in collaboration with AfricSanté.

PROMIS Burkina Faso Endline Data 2016, Child*Platform Level

The dataset contains endline data (at the child platform level) of the impact evaluation in Burkina Faso of the “Innovative Approaches for the Prevention of Childhood Malnutrition” (PROMIS) project, which integrated a preventive intervention package into Community Management for Acute Malnutrition (CMAM) programming in Burkina Faso and Mali. Using cluster-randomized designs, we evaluated the impact of integrating preventive services into screening for child acute malnutrition on acute malnutrition screening and treatment coverage and acute malnutrition prevalence and incidence. The PROMIS program sought to address the low screening coverage in Burkina Faso by integrating two preventive interventions into the screening at monthly well-baby consultations offered at the health center:

    (1) behavior change communication on essential nutrition and hygiene actions to improve child nutrition and health-seeking behavior, including for malnutrition;

    (2) the provision of a small-quantity lipid-based nutrient supplement (SQ-LNS) to all children to increase intake of essential nutrients (and prevent undernutrition) and to incentivize caregivers to participate regularly in acute malnutrition screening.


The intervention was implemented by Helen Keller International through the national health system. Data were collected by the International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI) in collaboration with AfricSanté.

Replication data for: Cereal Systems Initiative for South Asia (CSISA) Baseline Household Survey 2010-2011

The Cereal Systems Initiative for South Asia (CSISA) was launched in 2009 with support from the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation (BMGF) and the United States Agency for International Development (USAID). CSISA’s objective is to develop and deploy more efficient, productive and sustainable technologies for the diverse rice-wheat production systems of the Indo-Gangetic Plains (IGP) that ultimately improve food supply and improve the livelihoods of the poor in the region.

The CSISA Baseline Household Survey was conducted in late 2010 and early 2011 across eight of the hub domains in which CSISA was operating during its initial phase. The household survey was designed to inform CSISA management as well as to establish a priori conditions (farming practices, farmer livelihoods, etc.) against which the social, economic and livelihood impacts of CSISA will be evaluated. Pursuant to these objectives, a structured questionnaire was developed in a joint effort of socio-economists from different centers of the CGIAR, as well as agronomists and hub managers. In all, the baseline household survey collected data on
2,567 households across the CSISA hub domains of Haryana, Punjab, eastern Uttar Pradesh, Bihar and Tamil Nadu in India; Dinajpur and Gazipur in Bangladesh; and the Terai region of central Nepal.

Analysis of the baseline data finds that:

The CSISA coverage area is highly diverse in terms of climatological and agro-ecological conditions, cropping patterns, livestock management, land holdings, production practices, yie
lds and other variables. This reinforces the initiative’s site- and context-specific approach to effecting change, but complicates the evaluation of impact across the entire coverage area.

CSISA targeting is generally reflective of the surrounding population in the hub domain. However, evidence of more explicit targeting (e.g., of women-headed households or other vulnerable groups) was found only in the Gazipur hub.

Whereas findings suggest that labor-saving technological change may be a priority in the northwestern hubs (Punjab, Haryana), productivity-enhancing technological change that intensifies production on small landholdings may be a priority for most othe
r hubs.

Poverty and inequality measures indicate significant levels of vulnerability in the Nepal Terai, Bangladesh, eastern UP and Bihar. This may indicate a need for some re-prioritization of CSISA work in favor of Nepal, provided that CSISA’s technologies and approaches are appropriate to its needs.

The role of women in agriculture varies widely across the CSISA hub domains, and is determined largely by social status and social constructs. In general, women provide vital inp
uts into agricultural production, both in terms of labor as well as decision-making. The complexities of these issues suggest the need for more rigorous analysis regarding gender gaps in access to technical knowledge and information, inequalities in participation in key decision-making processes, as well as the impacts of the RCTs that are being promoted under CSISA. This may necessitate the collection of gender-disaggregated data for constraints analysis, technology prioritization among different household types and careful consideration in the design, implementation and evaluation of impact assessments.

Familiarity with RCTs is most limited in Bihar and other eastern hub domains, suggesting the obvious potential for expanding CSISA activities in these areas. That said, sources of information on RCTs are quite domain-specific and vary significantly between CSISA, input retailers and friends/neighbors.

There is evidence from the baseline survey to suggest that while non-adoption is largely driven by insufficient information about several RCTs, disadoption driven by poor yield p
erformance and other factors is a non-trivial phenomenon in the CSISA domains.

PROMIS Burkina Faso Follow-Up Data of the Longitudinal Study 2015-2017, Child*Month*Platform Level

The dataset contains longitudinal data ( child*month*Platform follow-up) of the impact evaluation in Burkina Faso of the “Innovative Approaches for the Prevention of Childhood Malnutrition” (PROMIS) project, which integrated a preventive intervention package into Community Management for Acute Malnutrition (CMAM) programming in Burkina Faso and Mali. Using cluster randomized designs, we evaluated the impact of integrating preventive services into screening for child acute malnutrition on acute malnutrition screening and treatment coverage and acute malnutrition prevalence and incidence. The PROMIS program sought to address the low screening coverage in Burkina Faso by integrating two preventive interventions into the screening at monthly well-baby consultations offered at the health center:

    (1) behavior change communication on essential nutrition and hygiene actions to improve child nutrition and health-seeking behavior, including for malnutrition;

    (2) the provision of a small-quantity lipid-based nutrient supplement (SQ-LNS) to all children to increase intake of essential nutrients (and prevent undernutrition) and to incentivize caregivers to participate regularly in acute malnutrition screening.


The intervention was implemented by Helen Keller International through the national health system. Data were collected by the International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI) in collaboration with AfricSanté.