NUOnet (Nutrient Use and Outcome Network) database

NUOnet Vision: Efficient use of nutrients to optimize production and product quality of food for animals and humans, fuel and fiber in a sustainable manner that contributes to ecosystem services.

Best nutrient management practices are critical for maintaining profitable economic returns, sustaining higher yields, lowering environmental impacts, optimizing nutritional quality, and providing ecosystem services. Best management practices that improve nutrient use efficiencies can reduce nutrient losses from agricultural systems. However, we need to improve our understanding of biological, physical and chemical influences on nutrient processes. For instance, crop use efficiency of nitrogen (N), the primary macronutrient regulating yield and protein content, can be reduced by processes such as denitrification (N2O and N2 emission), leaching (NH4-N, NO3-N, and organic-N), ammonia (NH3-N,) volatilization, surface runoff and erosion, disease, and non-crop competition. Similarly, we need to obtain more information about biological and physical cycles of nutrients, especially phosphorus (P), including factors that influence nutrient availability from fertilizers, crop residues, cover crops, manures, and other byproducts. We need a better understanding of relationships between soil biological communities and ecosystems, including plant roots and root exudates, and availability and uptake of macro- and micro-nutrients. In addition, we need information regarding how these practices impact yields, organoleptic qualities, and the macro- and micro-nutritional composition of plants. This information will improve our ability to develop best nutrient management practices.

Optimal soil nutrient levels are critical for maximizing economic returns, increasing sustainable yields, lowering environmental impacts, sustaining ecosystem services and optimizing nutritional and organoleptic qualities of human and animal foods. Efficient management practices are crucial for increasing economic returns for land managers in a sustainable manner while producing high quality of food for animals and humans with reduced off-site transfer of nutrients from agricultural areas in watersheds. Optimizing N and P inputs requires more information about nutrient inputs from fertilizers, manures, composts, agricultural byproducts, cover crops, and other nutrient sources in addition to nutrient cycling within soils. This requires data from long-term nutrient management studies across a wide range of soils, crops, and environmental conditions. Land management needs are to connect nutrient management practices for crops with nutrient use efficiency; crop quality; crop chemical composition and nutritional value, quality and acceptability for animal and human health. Development of databases that enable the scientific exploration of connections among data generated from diverse research efforts such as nutrient management, fate and ecosystem service outcomes, nutritional composition of crops, and animal and human health, is needed.

Nitrogen is a key nutrient that enhances agricultural yield and protein content, but multiple N loss pathways, as previously mentioned, reduce crop N use efficiency (NUE). Implementing proper management practices is needed to reduce N losses from agricultural systems. ARS has multidisciplinary scientific teams with expertise in soils, ecological engineering, hydrology, livestock management and nutrition, horticulture, crop breeding, human and animal nutrition, post-harvest management and processing, and other areas, and intentional collaboration among these teams offers opportunities to rapidly improve NUE and crop quality and reduce off-site N losses.

Similarly, increased P use efficiencies are needed to enhance and ensure sustainable agricultural production and to reduce environmental degradation of water sources. Manure is a valuable source of P and it can be used as a soil amendment to reduce crop production costs. However, there is a need to improve our understanding of the biological and physical cycles of soil P, as well as to obtain more information about P supplies from fertilizer, crop residues, cover crops, manure, and byproducts, and livestock nutrition impacts on manure properties.

There is also a need for a better understanding of soil biological communities and ecosystems, including plant roots and root exudates and how their interactions with crops and community ecology affect yield and the uptake of macro- and micro-nutrients and the ultimate nutritional composition and organoleptic qualities of the crop. Studies documenting the responses of crop-associated biological communities to management practices and genetic technologies implemented across multiple environments (e.g., soil types and chemistries, hydrologic regimes, climates) will improve our understanding of gaps in macro- and micro-nutrient management strategies.

A goal of the USDA-ARS is to increase agricultural production and quality while reducing environmental impacts. The Nutrient Uptake and Outcomes (NUOnet) database will be able to help establish baselines on nutrient use efficiencies; processes contributing to nutrient losses; and processes contributing to optimal crop yield, nutritional and organoleptic quality. This national database could be used to calculate many different environmental indicators from a comprehensive understanding of nutrient stocks and flows. Increasing our understanding of stocks and flows could help in the identification of knowledge gaps as well as areas where increased efficiencies can be achieved at a national level. NUOnet could also be used to develop tools to derive cost-benefit curves associated with nutrient management improvement scenarios and assess local, regional and national impacts of off-site nutrient loss. Understanding how agricultural production impacts human health is a challenge, and the database could be used to link crop management strategies to crop chemical composition to human consumption patterns and ultimately to human health outcomes. A national database will also be very important for development and evaluation of new technologies such as real-time sensing or other proximal and remote sensing technologies that enable assessment of nutrient use efficiencies, particularly at the grower level. The database could also be used to develop analyses that will contribute to the recommendation of policies for resource allocations that will most effectively fulfill the goals of the Grand Challenge. Such a national database with contributions from peers across different national programs could also enhance collaborations between ARS, universities, and extension specialists, as well as with producers, industry, and other partners.

See the NUOnet Home Page for more information about this database and strategic goals.

Africa RISING Tanzania- Maize Intensification Using Fertilizer

Using appropriate fertilizer recommendations and effective fertilizer materials is important to meet nutrient requirements of maize and sustain soil fertility. Unlike other agroecological zones, no fertilizer recommendations have been developed for the semi-arid zone in Tanzania, undermining the effort to target technologies in the specific biophysical conditions in which smallholder farmers operate. To fill this gap field experiments were carried out to develop fertilizer application rates for nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) and to identify the effective P source for this zone at Molet and Njoro Villages. Randomized complete block design (RCBD) with three replications was adopted in this study. Triple Super Phosphate (TSP) fertilizer was used to test various application rates: 0, 7.5, 15, 30, 45 and 60 kg P/ha. For P-source trial, Minjingu Mazao, Minjingu hyperphosphate, and TSP were tested at 0 and 30 kg P/ha for each fertilizer material. For the N-fertilizer trial, treatments included control (no fertilizer), 20, 40, 60, 80 and 120 kg N/ha and it was conducted at Njoro alone. In 2015 about 292 farmers (Female 134 and Male 158) in 3 villages demonstrated the fertilizer technology on their baby plots using the application rates developed on the mother sites.

About the project

Project title: Africa RISING

Project abstract

The aim of the Africa RISING project in Kongwa and Kiteto Districts, Tanzania is to provide a scientific basis for sustainably intensifying agricultural production in semi-arid areas of central Tanzania. The project activities are falls under 4 thematic areas that address three critical elements of sustainable intensification (SI), i.e. genetic, ecological and socio-economic intensification technologies. The scope of activities being implemented include: packaging of new legume and cereal varieties with over 120% yield advantage, packaging and validation of integrated productivity enhancing technologies for cereals, legumes, legume trees and soil health technologies, food safety primarily to reduce aflatoxin contamination and integration of livestock into the cropping systems. The innovation platform is used to set R4D priority in the action sites. In the 2013-2014 season, we reached out to about 1217 farmers Kongwa and Kiteto districts. In 2014 we plan to reach out to about 1500 new farmers. The project team is comprised of national partners (e.g. ARI-Hombolo, District Agricultural Officers, SUA and UDOM) and CG Partners (CIMMYT and ICRAF) under the leadership of ICRISAT.

Project website: http://africa-rising.net

Project start date: 05/1/2012

Project end date : 09/30/2016