Micro Investment Climate Survey 2006

This research is part of India 2006 Investment Climate Survey initiative that focused on enterprises in the manufacturing, retail, micro (unorganized), and software/information technology sectors. A separate survey was conducted for each sector.

India 2006 Micro Investment Climate Survey targeted establishments with 10 or fewer full-time paid employees. The research covered 1549 manufacturing enterprises from Delhi, Ludhiana, Mumbai, Thane, Howrah and Hyderabad. The following industries were surveyed: auto components, drugs and pharmaceuticals, chemicals, electrical goods, electronics, food processing, garments, leather, textiles, metal and machine tools.

Unorganized (micro) manufacturing employs the vast majority of India’s manufacturing workforce. Unorganized manufacturing firms are not integrated into the supply chain, thus limiting the transfer of technology. Possibly due to the legacy of the small scale reservation policy, much of the manufacturing activity in the unorganized sector is geared toward producing final products for the consumer market, rather than intermediate products and parts for the organized sector.

Being part of the organized sector, often referred to as the “formal sector,” increases a firm’s bargaining power (for example, it has easier access to finance). However, international experience suggests that despite the advantages, unorganized enterprises often wish to remain informal, because organized firms are subject to more regulations. In India, the 10-worker threshold is especially important because labor laws on wages and benefits are applied to units above this size. Firms can avoid being part of the organized sector in two ways: operating “under the radar” by simply not registering, or by not growing.

The Investment Climate Surveys (ICS) collected information on the investment climate constraints the sectors faced, such as infrastructure, access to land, relationship with the court system, crime, government administration, use of financial services, and labor force. In addition, the surveys collected basic information on the firms, such as ownership structure, number of years of operations, and revenues and costs. The data and results from the ICS were intended to help develop policy reforms that would further promote growth and productivity of firms in India.

The GRIN-Global Project

GRIN-Global (GG) is a database application that enables genebanks to store and manage information associated with plant genetic resources (germplasm) and deliver that information globally. The GRIN-Global project’s mission is to provide a scalable version of the Germplasm Resource Information Network (GRIN) suitable for use by any interested genebank in the world. The GRIN-Global database platform has been and is being implemented at various genebanks around the world. The first version, 1.0.7, was released in December, 2011 in a joint effort by the Global Crop Diversity Trust, Bioversity International, and the Agricultural Research Service of the USDA. The U.S. National Plant Germplasm System version (1.9.4.2) entered into production on November 30, 2015.

Typically set up in a networked environment, GG can also run stand-alone on a single personal computer. GG has been developed with open source software and its source code is available, and Genebanks can thus tailor GG to meet their specific requirements. GG comprises a suite of programs, including a Curator Tool, Updater, Search Tool, Admin Tool, and Public Website with Shopping Cart. Through the Public Website, researchers can access germplasm information; search the entire GG database and download results; and order germplasm from the genebank. Data are also associated with Google Maps.

Current installations include Bolivia (INIAF), Chile (INIA), CIMMYT (CGIAR), Czech Republic (Crop Research Institute), Portugal (INIAV), USDA (NPGS), Tunisia (BNG), CIP (CGIAR), Genetic Resources of Madeira Island (Portugal), CIAT (CGIAR) with many others under evaluation.

Sustainable Intensification of Agricultural Productivity in Semi-Arid-Tropics (SAT) of India – Case studies

Sustainable intensification is a term now much used in discussions around the future of agriculture and food security. Semi-arid tropics have largely remained outside the process of excessive intensification, due to the paucity of water. Rather agricultural intensification was restricted to the smaller fractions of irrigated areas in the vast areas of semi-arid tropics. The present study analyses the sustainability using three different approaches. One, Geospatial analysis, second crop simulation modelling and third an econometric analysis. In Geospatial analysis both spatial and temporal changes in per unit cropped area are captured with more precision and accuracy. Crop simulation models are valuable tools in assessing sustainability of cropping systems. The major components of the model are vegetative and reproductive development, carbon balance, water balance and nitrogen balance. It simulates crop growth and development using a daily time step from sowing to maturity and ultimately predicts yield. In the present study we evaluated eight sustainability indicators, crop yield, water-use efficiency (WUE), the amounts of soil organic carbon (OC) across cycles of the rotation, nitrogen fixing, ‘N’ leaching, Nitrogen-use-efficiency, inorganic ‘N’ in soil at maturity, total ‘N’ uptake at maturity. Sustainability polygons were developed to illustrate the sustainability state of a crop rotations to traditional rotations. To measure sustainability, household survey data collected from designated studies was used to derive indicators of sustainability. A range of sustainability indicators were generated from the survey relating to ecological, economic and social dimensions. The main purpose of this study was to elicit changes across the farming systems and agro-ecological regions and derive conclusions for sustainability across study locations

Performance of diverse upland rice cultivars in low and high soil fertility conditions in West Africa

Traditional tropical japonica (Oryza sativa) and Oryzaglaberrimacultivars are typically grown in lowinput, subsistence production systems in the uplands of West Africa by resource-poor farmers. In these systems, low soil fertility (LF), which is generally associated with lower organic carbon content, and N and P availability, is one of the major constraints to rice productivity. Thus, cultivars adapted to LF are needed for the food security of farmers, who would otherwise be solely reliant on nutrient inputs to increase productivity. This study evaluated the performance of six diverse cultivars grown in LF and high soil fertility (HF) conditions with supplemental irrigation over two seasons. Average grain yield across all cultivars in LF was 54% of that in HF (156 vs. 340 g m_2). Three improved indicarice cultivars and CG 14 (O. glaberrima) out-yielded Morobe´ re´kan (traditional tropical japonica) and WAB450-IBP-38-HB (progeny from interspecific hybridization of tropical japonica and O. glaberrima) in LF (181 vs. 105 g m_2 on average). The high grain yield in LF was the result of large spikelet number m_2 due to superior tillering ability and high harvest index rather than biomass production. The high-yielding cultivars in LF consistently had lower leaf chlorophyll content and higher specific leaf area during the period from the early vegetative stage through the reproductive stage. Among them, two indicacultivars (B6144F-MR-6-0-0 and IR 55423-01) were also high yielding in HF. The use of improved indicacultivars adapted to LF, but also with input-responsiveness, appears to offer an attractive and economical approach to improving upland rice productivity and widening genetic diversity in this region.

Developing direct-seeding options for rice farmers in the Indo-Gangetic Plains

The rice-wheat farming systems of the Indo-Gangetic Plains (IGP) are essential to India’s food security. These systems face multiple threats, however, to the future of the natural resource base. These threats include increased costs for irrigation and fuel, seasonal labor shortages, and unsustainable use of groundwater. In addition, climate change means increasingly variable monsoons that are likely to pose further constraints. Direct-seeded rice, as an alternative to transplanted rice, provides a potential entry point to save labor, reduce reliance on irrigation water, and increase productivity of the wheat crop. Technology options for direct seeding and related weed management were developed and validated in India commencing with on-station experiments and small-scale on-farm trials in 2000 and increasing to a total of more than 100 farmers’ field trials by 2005. These farmers’ trials, which compared both wet and dry direct-seeded rice with transplanted rice, were conducted in the states of Uttarakhand, Uttar Pradesh, and Bihar by four agricultural universities. The trials involved a wide community of farming stakeholders in diverse agroecosystems, and spanned mechanized farms (>2 ha) in Uttarakhand to smallholder farms (>=0.5 ha) in Bihar reliant on manual labor. Direct seeding is ‘knowledge-intensive’ and farmers require access to considerable amounts of information in order to respond to the variability of the monsoon, soil conditions, and weed infestations. Making such information available within the farm communities, and providing them w
ith tools to aid better decision making and the means to evaluate their crop own management, is critical to the successful adoption of such practices. Activities with farmers’ groups have continued since 2005 to validate direct-seeding practices on-farm, and also to explore the constraints to adoption and the information requirements to support effective farmer decision making.

Replication Data for: Crop wild relatives of pigeonpea [Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp.]: Distributions, ex situ conservation status, and potential genetic resources for abiotic stress tolerance

Pigeonpea [Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp.] is a versatile, stress-tolerant, and nutritious grain legume, possessing traits of value for enhancing the sustainability of dry sub-tropical and tropical agricultural systems. The use of crop wild relatives (CWR) in pigeonpea breeding has been successful in providing important resistance, quality, and breeding efficiency traits to the crop. Current breeding objectives for pigeonpea include increasing its tolerance to abiotic stresses, including heat, cold, drought, and waterlogging. Here we assess the potential for pigeonpea CWR to be further employed in crop improvement by compiling wild species occurrence and ex situ conservation information, producing geographic distribution models for the species, identifying gaps in the comprehensiveness of current germplasm collections, and using ecogeographic information to identify CWR populations with the potential to contribute agronomic traits of priority to breeders. The fifteen prioritized relatives of pigeonpea generally occur in South and Southeast Asia to Australia, with the highest concentrations of species in southern India and northern Australia. These taxa differ considerably among themselves and in comparison to the crop in their adaptations to temperature, precipitation and edaphic conditions. We find that these wild genetic resources are broadly under-represented in ex situ conservation systems, with 80% of species assessed as high priority for further collecting, thus their availability to plant breeders is insufficient. We identify species and highlight geographic locations for further collecting in order to improve the completeness of pigeonpea CWR germplasm collections, with particular emphasis on potential traits for abiotic stress tolerance.

Protocol for the Agricultural Biodiversity (ABD) Assessment in Mali / Protocole pour l’évaluation de la Biodiversité Agricole (ABD) á Mali

The biodiversity of plant and animal species both domesticated and wild used for food by humans (referred to here as agricultural biodiversity—ABD) is one of the most important assets for rural households, particularly for the poor in marginal areas such as the drylands of the developing world. A contribution of Bioversity International to the Dryland Systems CGIAR Research Programme (CRP) [http://drylandsystems.cgiar.org/] has been to examine systematically the diversity of these species in CRP target sites in Mali, Ghana, Malawi and India. Bioversity and partners have carried out a set of Agricultural Biodiversity Assessments in these countries. In the case of Mali, the selected sites include two villages in the Sikasso region: Kani and Farakoro. These villages have been already part of an ICRISAT baseline survey. An additional village, N’Goutjina, was selected by Bioversity to complement the work. Here we present the protocols used for collecting the data from Mali.
The objective of the ABD Assessment is to identify and quantify all the useful plant, animal, and aquatic species utilized by rural households and communities in the Dryland Systems CRP sites, as well as information on markets attended and general socioeconomic household characteristics. This information will be used to characterize three dimensions of ABD: (1) diversity in the production system, including on farm and common lands; (2) dietary diversity; and (3) market diversity; in terms of the elements and relationships involved and the exogenous factors that influence their status and dynamics. These data will be the basis for analyzing the roles of ABD in the lives and livelihoods of these rural populations in order to identify entry points for designing and implementing interventions that contribute to improve their well-being.

Identifying high-yield low-emission pathways for the cereal production in South Asia

Household survey was conducted by International Maize and Wheat Improvement Centre (CIMMYT) as part of CGIAR research program on Climate Change Agriculture and Food Security (CCAFS) in Karnal district of Haryana state and Vaishali district of Bihar state in India. The overall aim is to identify high-yield low-emission development pathways in cereal production systems. To achieve this, specific objectives are as follows: (i) to identify various technologies and farm management practices that influence GHG emissions and (ii) to explore household socio-economic factors that determine the adoption of low-emission technologies and management practices at the farm level. The information collected through questionnaire was crop production, socio-economic and demographic conditions, climate risks in agriculture and adaptation and mitigation measures. The data presented was tillage and crop establishment methods, water management, crop type, N rate (kg/ha), yield (Mg/ha), CO2 emission (kgCO2e/ha), N2O (kgCO2e/ha), CH4 (kgCO2e/ha) and total GWP (kgCO2/ha).

Replication Data for: Market Segmentation Strategies for the Dissemination of New Agricultural Production Technologies: Experimental Delivery of Laser Land Leveling to Farmers in Uttar Pradesh, India

This dataset contains observations from 478 households interviewed in 2011 and 2012 as part of a study titled “Market segmentation strategies for the dissemination of new agricultural production technologies in India.” The data were collected as part of a demand elicitation exercise and randomized control trial of custom-hired laser land leveling services provided to study participants. The study was conducted in the Maharajganj, Gorakhpur, and Deoria districts of eastern Uttar Pradesh, India under the auspices of the Cereal Systems Initiative for South Asia (CSISA). These three districts represent the regional spectrum of productivity in rice–wheat cropping systems. From each district, eight villages were randomly selected from a population of villages that met specific criteria set forth in the publications noted above. In addition to household data on the study participants, the dataset contains information on 926 plots cultivated by the study participants. Aside from household survey data, this study also contains data from village, social network, and monitoring surveys.

Replication Data for: Crop wild relatives of pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp.): Distributions, ex situ conservation status, and potential genetic resources for abiotic stress tolerance

Pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp.) is a versatile, stress-tolerant, and nutritious grain legume, possessing traits of value for enhancing the sustainability of dry sub-tropical and tropical agricultural systems. The use of crop wild relatives (CWR) in pigeonpea breeding has been successful in providing important resistance, quality, and breeding efficiency traits to the crop. Current breeding objectives for pigeonpea include increasing its tolerance to abiotic stresses, including heat, cold, drought, and waterlogging. Here we assess the potential for pigeonpea CWR to be further employed in crop improvement by compiling wild species occurrence and ex situ conservation information, producing geographic distribution models for the species, identifying gaps in the comprehensiveness of current germplasm collections, and using ecogeographic information to identify CWR populations with the potential to contribute agronomic traits of priority to breeders. The fifteen prioritized relatives of pigeonpea generally occur in South and Southeast Asia to Australia, with the highest concentrations of species in southern India and northern Australia. These taxa differ considerably among themselves and in comparison to the crop in their adaptations to temperature, precipitation and edaphic conditions. We find that these wild genetic resources are broadly under-represented in ex situ conservation systems, with 80% of species assessed as high priority for further collecting, thus their availability to plant breeders is insufficient. We identify species and highlight geographic locations for further collecting in order to improve the completeness of pigeonpea CWR germplasm collections, with particular emphasis on potential traits for abiotic stress tolerance