Originating from the Andean region and co-evolved with its food plant, the potato (Solanum sp.), the potato tuber moth Phthorimaea operculella (Zeller) has become an invasive potato pest globally. The hypothesis of our present study was that the future distribution and abundance (damage potential) of this pest will be greatly affected by climate-change-caused changes in temperature. We used a process-based climatic phenology model for P. operculella and applied three risk indices (establishment-, generation, and activity index) in a geographic information system (GIS) environment to map and quantify changes for climate change scenarios of the year 2050 based on downscaled climate-change data of the scenario A1B from the WorldClim database. All applications and simulations were made using the Insect Life Cycle Modeling (ILCYM) software recently developed by The International Potato Center, Lima, Peru. The study concludes that there are three possible main scenarios of changes that may simultaneously occur: (1) the P. operculella damage potential will progressively increase in all regions where the pest already prevails today with an excessive increase in warmer cropping regions of the tropics and subtropics. In regions where P. operculella is established and develops >4 generations per year, economic losses are likely to occur; under the current climate, >4 generations are developed on 30.1% of the total potato production area worldwide, which will increase until the year 2050 to 42.4%, equal to an increase of 2,409,974 ha of potato under new infestation. (2) A range expansion in temperate regions of the northern hemisphere with additionally 8.6% (699,680 ha), 4.2% (32,873 ha), and 2.7% (234,404 ha) of the potato production area under higher risk in Asia, North America, and Europe, with moderate increases of its damage potential. (3) A range expansion in tropical temperate mountainous regions with a moderate increase of its damage potential; e.g., in Bolivia, Ecuador and Peru 44,281 ha, 9569 ha, and 39,646 ha of potato will be under new risk of infestation. The ILCYM software allowed a detailed analysis of possible climate-change-induced changes in temperature on P. operculella distribution and damage potential. Further, this tool offers means of overcoming limitations in predictions and mapping experienced with climate data interpolation and resolution by spatial point-by-point simulations at locations of interest. The methodology is proposed as a very helpful tool for adaptation planning in integrated pest management.
The use of high quality seed is one of the current strategies to increase seed and food security in the highlands of Ecuador. Unfortunately, poor information about farmers’ demand of high quality seed limits the implementation of this strategy. For this reason, this study aimed to investigate the characteristics of the demand of high quality seed in the country. To do this, 150 potato producers were surveyed using the rapid market assessment in five Ecuadorian provinces: Cañar, Carchi, Chimborazo, Cotopaxi, and Tungurahua (data in “survey_answers1” and “survey_answers2” sheet). Also, 13 interviews were carried out with experts that are involved in the seed value chain (data in the sheets referring to interviews and in the report associated to this study).
Data from Cotopaxi province, central Ecuador (rural). Objective: Measure biodiversity in the diet. Tropics, lowland, temperate agro-ecological zone and Intensive highland mixed (North Andes) farming system. Food composition table used was Ecuador , Peru and Central America (references Nutricion INd (1965) Tabla de composicion de alimentos Ecuatorianos. (Quito).
A 24 hour recall was used to assess dietary intake. Household utensils were used to assess quantity consumed. The following food composition tables were used to asses nutritional composition of food and drinks consumed: (i). INCAP (2007). Tabla de composicion de alimentos de centro america. Guatemala, Instituto de Nutricion de Centroamerica y Panama. Organizacion Panamericana de la Salud. Segunda Edicion. (ii) INS (2009). Tablas Peruanas de composicion de alimentos Lima, Centro Nacional de Alimentacion y Nutricion. Instituto Nacional de Salud (iii) INN (1695). Tabla de composicion de alimentos Ecuatorianos Quito, Ministerio de provision social y sanidad. Instituto Nacional de Nutricion.
Strengthening potato seed systems in developing countries is essential to improve seed security. In Ecuador, as in other developing countries, the limited knowledge about the complexity of the different seed systems has restricted the impact on seed security of a large amount of interventions. To contribute to the impact of seed interventions, this research aimed to: (1) understand the different traits of a diverse array of seed systems and (2) describe the different agricultural and social characteristics of the households of the province of Cotopaxi. The design of this study (survey/sampling strategy) was based on the information collected during a pilot study (n=40 interviewed farmers selected at random). Therefore, this survey was implemented using a stratified sampling design where each canton (Latacunga, Pujili, Salcedo and Saquisili) was considered as a different stratum. Each stratum was initially divided in different numbers of quadrants to assure proper spatial distribution. The questionnaire used was an adaptation of the questionnaire suggested by Hammond et al., 2017 (Journal of Agricultural systems [Vol 151]). It considered the following sections: (1) Metadata, (2) Household characteristics, (3) Crop productivity, (4) Potato seed system traits, (5) Agricultural inputs, (6) Livestock productivity, (7) Wild food, (8) Food security, and (9) Progress out of Poverty. As a result, we surveyed, from September to October 2018, 118 farmers in Latacunga, 67 farmers in Pujili, 56 farmers in Salcedo, and 19 farmers in Saquisili. It is expected that this database contributes to a deeper knowledge about seed systems and consequently provides information to improve current seed system interventions.
This contains potato seed system data collected for a network analysis. It is from CONPAPA, a consortium of small potato producers in Tungurahua Ecuador. It documents the movement of potato seed, and potato product for several potato varieties. Information is from 48 farmers, and documents stakeholders involved in the seed system, and in the buying and selling of potatoes for food. Data are anonymized to protect the identities of the participants. In addition, the data documents the farmers’ main sources of information for integrated pest management. Data was collected in November 2015, but documents information from several planting seasons.