GEOGLAM (GEO Global Agricultural Monitoring) Crop Assessment Tool

The Group on Earth Observations, a partnership of governments and international organizations, developed the Global Agricultural Monitoring (GEOGLAM) initiative in response to the growing calls for improved agricultural information. The goal of GEOGLAM is to strengthen the international community’s capacity to produce and disseminate relevant, timely and accurate forecasts of agricultural production at national, regional and global scales through the use of Earth Observations (EO), which include satellite and ground-based observations. This initiative is designed to build on existing agricultural monitoring programs and initiatives at national, regional and global levels and to enhance and strengthen them through international networking, operationally focused research, and data/method sharing.

The GEOGLAM Crop Monitor provides the Agricultural Market Information System (AMIS) with an international and transparent multi-source, consensus assessment of crop growing conditions, status, and agro-climatic conditions, likely to impact global production. This activity covers the four primary crop types (wheat, maize, rice, and soy) within the main agricultural producing regions of the AMIS countries. These assessments have been produced operationally since September 2013 and are published in the AMIS Market Monitor Bulletin. The Crop Monitor reports provide cartographic and textual summaries of crop conditions as of the 28th of each month, according to crop type.

Sources and Disclaimers: The Crop Monitor assessment is conducted by GEOGLAM with coordination from the University of Maryland. Inputs are from the following partners (in alphabetical order): Argentina (Buenos Aires Grains Exchange, INTA), Asia Rice Countries (AFSIS, ASEAN+3 & Asia RiCE), Australia (ABARES & CSIRO), Brazil (CONAB & INPE), Canada (AAFC), China (CAS), EU (EC JRC MARS), Indonesia (LAPAN & MOA), International (CIMMYT, FAO, IFPRI & IRRI), Japan (JAXA ), Mexico (SIAP), Russian Federation (IKI), South Africa (ARC & GeoTerraImage & SANSA), Thailand (GISTDA & OAE), Ukraine (NASU-NSAU & UHMC), USA (NASA, UMD, USGS – FEWS NET, USDA (FAS, NASS)), Viet nam (VAST & VIMHE-MARD). The findings and conclusions in this joint multi-agency report are consensual statements from the GEOGLAM experts, and do not necessarily reflect those of the individual agencies represented by these experts. Map data sources: Major crop type areas based on the IFPRI/IIASA SPAM 2005 beta release (2013), USDA/NASS 2013 CDL, 2013 AAFC Annual Crop Inventory Map, GLAM/UMD, GLAD/UMD, Australian Land Use and Management Classification (Version 7), SIAP, ARC, and JRC. The GEOGLAM crop calendars are compiled with information from AAFC, ABARES, ARC, Asia RiCE, Bolsa de cereales, CONAB, INPE, JRC, FAO, FEWS NET, IKI, INTA, SIAP, UHMC, USDA FAS, and USDA NASS.

Replication Data for: Crop wild relatives of pigeonpea [Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp.]: Distributions, ex situ conservation status, and potential genetic resources for abiotic stress tolerance

Pigeonpea [Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp.] is a versatile, stress-tolerant, and nutritious grain legume, possessing traits of value for enhancing the sustainability of dry sub-tropical and tropical agricultural systems. The use of crop wild relatives (CWR) in pigeonpea breeding has been successful in providing important resistance, quality, and breeding efficiency traits to the crop. Current breeding objectives for pigeonpea include increasing its tolerance to abiotic stresses, including heat, cold, drought, and waterlogging. Here we assess the potential for pigeonpea CWR to be further employed in crop improvement by compiling wild species occurrence and ex situ conservation information, producing geographic distribution models for the species, identifying gaps in the comprehensiveness of current germplasm collections, and using ecogeographic information to identify CWR populations with the potential to contribute agronomic traits of priority to breeders. The fifteen prioritized relatives of pigeonpea generally occur in South and Southeast Asia to Australia, with the highest concentrations of species in southern India and northern Australia. These taxa differ considerably among themselves and in comparison to the crop in their adaptations to temperature, precipitation and edaphic conditions. We find that these wild genetic resources are broadly under-represented in ex situ conservation systems, with 80% of species assessed as high priority for further collecting, thus their availability to plant breeders is insufficient. We identify species and highlight geographic locations for further collecting in order to improve the completeness of pigeonpea CWR germplasm collections, with particular emphasis on potential traits for abiotic stress tolerance.

Replication Data for: Crop wild relatives of pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp.): Distributions, ex situ conservation status, and potential genetic resources for abiotic stress tolerance

Pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp.) is a versatile, stress-tolerant, and nutritious grain legume, possessing traits of value for enhancing the sustainability of dry sub-tropical and tropical agricultural systems. The use of crop wild relatives (CWR) in pigeonpea breeding has been successful in providing important resistance, quality, and breeding efficiency traits to the crop. Current breeding objectives for pigeonpea include increasing its tolerance to abiotic stresses, including heat, cold, drought, and waterlogging. Here we assess the potential for pigeonpea CWR to be further employed in crop improvement by compiling wild species occurrence and ex situ conservation information, producing geographic distribution models for the species, identifying gaps in the comprehensiveness of current germplasm collections, and using ecogeographic information to identify CWR populations with the potential to contribute agronomic traits of priority to breeders. The fifteen prioritized relatives of pigeonpea generally occur in South and Southeast Asia to Australia, with the highest concentrations of species in southern India and northern Australia. These taxa differ considerably among themselves and in comparison to the crop in their adaptations to temperature, precipitation and edaphic conditions. We find that these wild genetic resources are broadly under-represented in ex situ conservation systems, with 80% of species assessed as high priority for further collecting, thus their availability to plant breeders is insufficient. We identify species and highlight geographic locations for further collecting in order to improve the completeness of pigeonpea CWR germplasm collections, with particular emphasis on potential traits for abiotic stress tolerance

Rice in cropping systems – Modelling transitions between flooded and non-flooded soil environments

Water shortages in many rice-growing regions, combined with growing global imperatives to increase food production, are driving research into increased water use efficiency and modified agricultural practices in rice-based cropping systems. Well-tested cropping systems models that capture interactions between soil water and nutrient dynamics, crop growth, climate and management can assist in the evaluation of new agricultural practices. The APSIM model was designed to simulate diverse crop sequences, residue/tillage practices and specification of field management options. It was previously unable to simulate processes associated with the long-term flooded or saturated soil conditions encountered in rice-based systems, due to its heritage in dryland cropping applications. To address this shortcoming, the rice crop components of the ORYZA2000 rice model were incorporated and modifications were made to the APSIM soil water and nutrient modules to include descriptions of soil carbon and nitrogen dynamics under anaerobic conditions. We established a process fo
r simulating the two-way transition between anaerobic and aerobic soil conditions occurring in crop sequences of flooded rice and other nonflooded crops, pastures and fallows. These transitions are dynamically simulated and driven by modeled hydraulic variables (soil water and floodwater depth). Descriptions of floodwater biological and chemical processes were also added. Our assumptions included a simplified approach to modelling O2 transport processes in saturated soils. The improved APSIM model was tested against diverse, replicated experimental datasets for rice-based cropping systems, representing a spectrum of geographical locations (Australia, Indonesia and Philippines), soil types, management practices, crop species, varieties and sequences. The model performed equally well in simulating rice grain yield during multi-season crop sequences as the original validation testing reported for the stand-alone ORYZA2000 model simulating single crops. This suggests robustness in APSIM’s simulation of the rice-growing environment and provides evidence on the usefulness of our modifications and practicality of our assumptions. Aspects of particular strength were identified (crop rotations; response to applied fertilizers; the performance of bare fallows), together with areas for further development work (simulation of retained crop stubble during fallows, greenhouse gas emissions). APSIM is now suitable to investigate production responses of potential agronomic and management changes in rice-based cropping systems, particularly in response to future imperatives linked to resource availability, climate change, and food security. Further testing is required to evaluate the impact of our simplified assumptions on the model’s simulation of greenhouse gas emissions in rice-based cropping systems.

Review of extension systems in Burundi- Kayanza Province

Key informant interviews (KIIs) were conducted with the aim of understanding the structure of agricultural extension in Burundi. The interviews formed part of the Australian Centre for International Agricultural research (ACIAR) funded ‘Trees for Food Security’ project work package 3 activities- Reporting on different extension methods and their suitability for different contexts. A total of 12 key informants drawn from National extension directorate, Ministry of Agriculture and Livestock and Non-governmental Organizations (NGOs) were interviewed. The major thematic areas were: Extension services disseminated to farmers; Extension approaches; Community engagement; Capacity/ efficiency; Strengths and weaknesses of extension and Commercialization and marketing

Integrating Crop and Livestock Production for Improved Food Security and Livelihoods in Rural Zimbabwe

Integrated crop livestock production systems are among the principal modes of livelihood in rural Zimbabwe. Nonetheless, the dynamics in each of the different components in such systems and the potential impact of technologies that enhance integration of these components at household level is hardly known. Concomitantly, CIMMYT, ICRISAT, ILRI and the government of Zimbabwe have designed and started to implement a project entitled “Integrating crops and livestock for improved food security and livelihoods in rural Zimbabwe”. The project is funded by the Australian Center for International Agricultural Research (ACIAR) and aims at increasing agricultural production through better integration of crop and livestock production and improved market functioning that will contribute to enhanced resilience of communities most vulnerable to food insecurity in rural Zimbabwe. This survey is designed to generate baseline information that will establish references for different measurements to be done in order to develop household typologies and quantify impact of the interventions to be made by or due to the project.