Sugar palm (Arenga pinnata (Wurmb) Merr.) for livelihoods and biodiversity conservation in the orangutan habitat of Batang Toru, North Sumatra, Indonesia: mixed prospects for domestication

Domestication of desirable forest resources in agroforestry is expected to contribute to community based forest conservation efforts, but there may be an optimum level of domestication in this respect. Aren or sugar palm (Arenga pinnata (Wurmb) Merr.) is a multipurpose tree that provides livelihoods for local people and food for other biota in the landscape. However, its domestication is still limited in many places, such as in Batang Toru Forest Block, an area of high conservation value, including habitat for the Sumatran orangutan (Pongo abelii). Options for aren management were prioritized as part of a landscape-scale conservation study by comparing domestication levels in the area. Data on economic indicators and ecological knowledge were gathered through interviews with key farmers, focus groups and transect walks. Four representative villages were selected for the study, that is, (i) two villages with no domestication of aren; and (ii) two villages with aren cultivation in rubber-based land-use systems. Costbenefit analyses suggested that in a rich biodiversity area, such as Batang Toru, although aren was one of the sources of local livelihoods, additional investment for domestication beyond cultivation was not an option considered by farmers. Farmers still perceived wildlife as an efficient mode of aren regeneration, supported by
the coexistence of people and other biota in the area. It appears the value of aren for local people’™s livelihoods and conservation can be enhanced by increasing its stocking density. There is also scope for improving market access and share of end-user value received by farmers.

Replication data for: Allanblackia floribunda: a new oil tree crop for africa: amenability to grafting

Three Allanblackia species (A. floribunda, A. stuhlmannii and A. parviflora) with high nutritive, medicinal, cosmetic and economic values are currently being domesticated as new oil tree crops. Allanblackia seeds contain a hard white fat consisting mostly of stearic (52 “58%) and oleic (39 “49%) acids. This unusual fatty acid content has the right properties for many different food and cosmetic products making them commercially interesting. Vegetative propagation studies on A. floribunda, which grows naturally in the moist forest of Cameroon and Nigeria, were initiated aimed at evaluating its amenability to grafting. Scions were grafted onto 18 month old rootstocks of A. floribunda using side tongue, top cleft, side veneer, whip-and-tongue methods under nursery conditions in Cameroon. In parallel, side tongue and inverted™ budding methods were also tested in situ on young A. floribunda wildings growing under semi-deciduous and evergreen tree covers. In addition, the effects of protecting side tongue new grafts with non perforated translucent plastic, perforated translucent plastic and aluminium foil were assessed. Under nursery conditions, side tongue grafts were significantly more successful (80.0 ± 6.3%), than grafts of side veneer (52.5 ± 7.9%), top cleft (55.0 ± 7.9%) and whip and tongue (50.0 ± 7.9%). The success of side tongue graft was further increased (86.7 ± 6.2%) under the shade of evergreen trees when protected by non perforated translucent plastic. These results indicate the potential for in situ grafting and top working to promote cultivation of more productive germplasm of Allanblackia within multifunctional agricultural systems.

Africa RISING Project

The research was supported through the USAID funded project Africa RISING (Research in Sustainable Intensification for the Next Generation). The project was launched as part of the US government Feed the Future initiative to address global hunger and food security issues in key farming systems in sub-Saharan Africa. This study was focussed on identifying existing sustainable intensive agricultural methods in Sinana woreda, Oromo region. The study also collected local knowledge on agricultural methods so as to assist in the development and implementation of appropriately adapted technologies to intensify production of crops, livelihood and household production without extending the areas subject to cultivation. The research objectives of the study were: A. To characterize agro-ecological knowledge of farmers in the Africa RISING project sites A. To identify and map out community resources A. To assess land use and livelihood strategies at the household level A. To characterise existing tree cover and assess the drivers of tree cover change A. To determine temporal variation in availability of provisioning services (income, fuel, livestock feed, crops, labour.)

Replication Data for: Effect of Inoculating Seeds with Bradyrhizobium japonicum on the Agronomic Performance of Five Varieties of Soybean (Glycine max) in Côte d’Ivoire

Recent studies in the Nawa region of Cote d’Ivoire have indicated an acute malnutrition rate of 11.3% among cocoa producers. One of recommended actions from the studies was to diversify agriculture with nutrients rich crops. Introduction of soybean (Glycine max) cropping system could go a long way to ensure food and nutritional security in the region. The current study was conducted in two sites (Logboayo and Soubré) in the south-west of Cote d’Ivoire, to evaluate the effect of IRAT-FA3 Bradyrhizobium japonicum strain inoculum on the agronomic performance of five varieties of soybean named Doko, Canarana, V3_2013, V6_2013 and IT_235. The experimental design was randomized complete block with a split plot with inoculation as the main factor and variety of soybean as subplot treatment replicated three times. Data were collected on some yield parameters and the grain yield. Results of yield showed a highly significant effect (P<0.0001) of the site and a significant effect (P=0.0316) of the variety x treatment interaction. Highest yield was recorded at Logboayo with 1838 kg ha-1 compared to 1220 kg ha-1 for Soubre. The variety V6_2013 with a yield of 1931 kg ha-1 and good vegetative development could be recommended as elite variety for the farmers in the Nawa region.

SUMMARIES: Trees on farm contribution to family livelihoods and ecosystem services in Nicaragua-Honduras Sentinel Lansdcape

A series of studies conducted as part of the long term research program in the Nicaragua-Honduras Sentinel Landscape. Since 2015 a series of studies have been developed to understand how trees on farms contribute to conserve biodiversity, ecosystem processes and improvement of people livelihood and food security. The studies have been developed along three Nicaraguan municipalities El Tuma-La Dalia, Waslala and Siuna. 120 farms and 570 land use plots have been measured considering both biophysical and socioeconomic variables. At plot and farm level data was generated to understand taxonomic tree diversity, trees production, soil characteristics, and an extensive information to describe farm management and economic indicators. Complementary, other partner institutions have been also developed studies in a subset of the 120 farms related with gender and farm perception. The present files contain a summary of the type of available data and a complete tree species list. The three files are:
* A compiled and checked species list for trees collected in all plots.
* General description of the 120 farms and their geographic location.
* Type of data available at farm and plot level for 120 farms.

Replication Data for: Assessment of Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Different Land-Use Systems: A Case Study of CO2 in the Southern Zone of Ghana

The emission of greenhouse gases (GHGs) results in global warming and climate change. +e extent to which developing countries contribute to GHG emissions is not well known. +is study reports findings on the effects of different land-use systems on GHG emissions (CO2 in this case) from two locations in the southern zone of Ghana, West Africa. Site one (located at Kpong) contained a heavy clay soil while site two (located at Legon) contained a light-textured sandy soil. Land-use systems include cattle kraals, natural forests, cultivated maize fields, and rice paddy fields at site one, and natural forest, woodlots, and cultivated soya bean fields at site two. CO2 emissions were measured using the gas entrapment method (PVC chambers). Trapping solutions were changed every 12–48 h and measurement lasted 9 to 15 days depending on the site. We found that, for the same land-use, CO2 emissions were higher on the clay soil (Kpong) than the sandy soil (Legon). In the clay soil environment, the highest average CO2 emission was observed from the cattle kraal (256.7 mg·m−2 ·h−1 ), followed by the forest (146.0 mg·m−2 ·h−1 ) and rice paddy (140.6 mg·m−2 ·h−1 ) field. +e lowest average emission was observed for maize cropped land (112.0 mg·m−2 ·h−1 ). In the sandy soil environment, the highest average CO2 emission was observed from soya cropped land (52.5 mg·m−2 ·h−1 ), followed by the forest (47.4 mg·m−2 ·h−1 ) and woodlot (33.7 mg·m−2 ·h−1 ). Several factors influenced CO2 emissions from the different land-use systems. +ese include the inherent properties of the soils such as texture, temperature, and moisture content, which influenced CO2 production through their effect on soil microbial activity and root respiration. Practices that reduce CO2 emissions are likely to promote carbon sequestration, which will consequently maintain or increase crop productivity and thereby improve global or regional food security

Replication Data for How to be an ant on figs

Mutualistic interactions are open to exploitation by one or other of the partners and a diversity of other organisms, and hence are best understood as being embedded in a complex network of biotic interactions. Figs participate in an obligate mutualism in that figs are dependent on agaonid fig wasps for pollination and the wasps are dependent on fig ovules for brood sites. Ants are common insect predators and abundant in tropical forests. Ants have been recorded on approximately 11% of fig species, including all six subgenera, and often affect the fig–fig pollinator interaction through their predation of either pollinating and parasitic wasps. On monoecious figs, ants are often associated with hemipterans, whereas in dioecious figs ants predominantly prey on fig wasps. A few fig species are true myrmecophytes, with domatia or food rewards for ants, and in at least one species this is linked to predation of parasitic fig wasps. Ants also play a role in dispersal of fig seeds and may be particularly important for hemi-epiphytic species, which require high quality establishment microsites in the canopy. The intersection between the fig–fig pollinator and ant–plant systems promises to provide fertile ground for understanding mutualistic interactions within the context of complex interaction networks.

Influence of clone provenance, branch diameter and positioning on the rooting ability of Dacryodes edulis macot in sourthen Cameroon.

In the process of participatory domestication of agroforestry species, one of the objectives is the conservation of genotype of fruit trees commonly used by local people and the overpower of their reproductive system. For this, techniques of vegetative propagation (tissue culture, grafting, cuttings and air layering) are applied
to those species which include the safou (Dacryodes edulis “G. Don” HJ Lam.) (Burseraceae), which is a forest tree native to tropical and equatorial Africa. It plays an undeniable role in the lives of Farmers. In addition to its fruit eaten as a food supplement, its wood is used for heating and contribution of traditional medicine should not be overlooked. The objective of this work is to identify clones that are better suited for air layering and assess the effect of the diameter of the marcots on its ability to take root. To achieve these objectives, 12 clones and two diameter classes (2-3 cm and 3-5 cm) were tested in this trial conducted following a randomized complete block.

Trees for Food Security Project-Local Knowledge-Tree management and impact of management on trees’ phenology in Oromiya region, Ethiopia

The research investigated the impact of management on the phenology of Acacia tortilis, Faidherbia albida, Croton macrostachyus, Dichrostachys cinerea and Ziziphus mucronata. The trees were selected, as they were dominant species, in two sites in a parkland system in Oromiya region, Ethiopia. The main purposes of this research were to elicit local knowledge about the effect of common management practices on phenology, the effect of management on tree – crop interaction and if management practices affects the tree size. Data mainly were collected by semi – structured interview and in combination with participatory research tools. This research found that pollarding, pruning and coppicing were three common management practices in both sites that farmers have a broad knowledge about them and they use from each one of these practices under the special circumstances for example they never do the pollarding when the trees are still so young. The farmers’ local knowledge suggested that the practice of pollarding was found to have a significant impact on the timing of flushing and flowering of all five species at both sites Tree management can change the tree – crop interaction. Except the managed F. albida trees, crops grow better under the other managed trees, as they have no shade and no water dropping on crops. Unmanaged F. albida has no leaf at the time of cropping but when farmers do the pollarding these trees start leaf flushing only 1 week to one month after pollarding and when they have leaves they have more light and water competition with crops so the crop productivity decrease under the managed F. albida.

Africa RISING Project: Local knowledge of farmers on constraints and opportunities to sustainable intensification of tree-crop-livestock mixed systems in Lemo Woreda, Southern Nations, Nationalities and Peoples Region, Ethiopia

Conducted under the AfricaRISING project, the overall objective of the study was to characterize local knowledge of farmers about resources which their livelihood depends on in Lemo woreda, Southern Nations, Nationalities and People’s Region (SNNPR). This research is one of the several studies that are geared towards contributing to the achievement of sustainable tree-crop-livestock intensification as a pillar for the Ethiopian Climate Resilient Green Economy Initiative by providing opportunities for integrating early win tree species and management options in fields, farms and landscapes customized to local conditions and circumstances. Therefore, the main goal of the study was to identify opportunities through which trees-crop-livestock mixed system can be sustainably intensified to contribute towards achieving whole System Level Outcomes (SLO’s) namely: reducing rural poverty and promoting income diversification, improving food security, improving nutrition and health and ensuring sustainable management of natural resources. Specific objectives of the study were: 1. To assess land use and livelihood strategies at the household level 2. To identify and map out community resources 3. To determine temporal variation in availability of provisioning resources (livestock feed, crops, income, fuel, etc.) 4. To characterize existing tree cover and assess the drivers of land use/ tree cover change 5. To identify existing challenges and assess opportunities for sustainable intensification