Phenotypic data for the Genome-Wide Association Study (GWAS) of the International Treaty Project Wheat Exchange Set

The study was conducted as part of International Treaty on Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture (ITPGRFA) Project titled: “Improving food security by enhancing wheat production and its resilience to climate change through maintaining the diversity of currently grown landraces”. The project was successfully conducted in Afghanistan, Iran and Turkey in 2015-2019 and had the following objectives:

1. Participatory selection of drought and heat tolerant wheat landraces among the set of the germplasm recently collected from the farming communities in the target countries using modern phenotyping and genotyping tools in collaboration with farming communities, research institutions, NGOs and extension services.

2. Development of germplasm combining drought and heat tolerance with disease resistance (primarily yellow rust and common as well as leaf and stem rust) through crosses, marker assisted selection and backcrossing to the landraces.

3. Promotion of selected drought and heat tolerant landraces in the targeted regions through enhanced on-farm seed production and bulk selection, improved agronomic practices and large scale awareness campaign.

4. Training of farmers, extension services and local administration, policy-makers, NGOs and researchers on sustainable cultivation of wheat landraces and role of biodiversity in mitigation of adverse effects of climate change.

Important part of the project activities was characterization of wheat 85 wheat landraces currently collected from Afghanistan, Iran and Turkey along with modern winter wheat germplasm adapted to irrigated and rainfed conditions and checks making the total 158 entries. The sets was thoroughly phenotyped for agronomic and physiological traits in Turkey (Konya, Ankara and Sakarya provinces) in 2018 and 2019, in Afghanistan (Kabul) in 2019 and in Iran (Maragheh) in 2019. The ITPGR requirement to the project was to make the data freely available through the Multilateral System.

The phenotyping of the trial was supported by ITPGRFA Project No: W2B-PR-41-Turkey with funding from the European Union. CIMMYT-Turkey is supported by Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry of the Turkish Republic and CRP WHEAT.

The file contained in this study provides both phenotypic and genotypic data for the landraces.

Identifying high-yield low-emission pathways for the cereal production in South Asia

Household survey was conducted by International Maize and Wheat Improvement Centre (CIMMYT) as part of CGIAR research program on Climate Change Agriculture and Food Security (CCAFS) in Karnal district of Haryana state and Vaishali district of Bihar state in India. The overall aim is to identify high-yield low-emission development pathways in cereal production systems. To achieve this, specific objectives are as follows: (i) to identify various technologies and farm management practices that influence GHG emissions and (ii) to explore household socio-economic factors that determine the adoption of low-emission technologies and management practices at the farm level. The information collected through questionnaire was crop production, socio-economic and demographic conditions, climate risks in agriculture and adaptation and mitigation measures. The data presented was tillage and crop establishment methods, water management, crop type, N rate (kg/ha), yield (Mg/ha), CO2 emission (kgCO2e/ha), N2O (kgCO2e/ha), CH4 (kgCO2e/ha) and total GWP (kgCO2/ha).

Replication Data for: Market Segmentation Strategies for the Dissemination of New Agricultural Production Technologies: Experimental Delivery of Laser Land Leveling to Farmers in Uttar Pradesh, India

This dataset contains observations from 478 households interviewed in 2011 and 2012 as part of a study titled “Market segmentation strategies for the dissemination of new agricultural production technologies in India.” The data were collected as part of a demand elicitation exercise and randomized control trial of custom-hired laser land leveling services provided to study participants. The study was conducted in the Maharajganj, Gorakhpur, and Deoria districts of eastern Uttar Pradesh, India under the auspices of the Cereal Systems Initiative for South Asia (CSISA). These three districts represent the regional spectrum of productivity in rice–wheat cropping systems. From each district, eight villages were randomly selected from a population of villages that met specific criteria set forth in the publications noted above. In addition to household data on the study participants, the dataset contains information on 926 plots cultivated by the study participants. Aside from household survey data, this study also contains data from village, social network, and monitoring surveys.

Characterization of Maize Producing Households in Drought Prone Regions of Eastern Africa

Agriculture in eastern Africa is predominantly rainfed and maize is a major food crop, primarily produced for home consumption and the market by small-scale family farms. The study characterized farm households in the drought prone maize growing areas of eastern Africa synthesizing data from parallel household surveys in Ethiopia, Kenya, Uganda and Tanzania. The study provides a comparative analysis of the farm households’ assets, livelihood strategies and crop management practices, with an emphasis on maize and maize seed. This illustrates how farmers in a similar agro-ecological environment but with different socio-economic and institutional settings have variously adapted to living with drought and how the inherent weather risk co-determines the livelihood portfolio, agricultural intensification incentives and system development pathways. The study thereby illustrates the challenges for agricultural intensification in such drought prone environments and the scope for drought tolerant maize varieties and explores the research and development implications.

Quantifying potential economic benefits of blast-resistant biofortified wheat in Bangladesh: The case of BARI Gom 33

For the first time in history, the emergence of wheat-blast in Bangladesh has generated major food security concerns. The Bangladesh Agricultural Research Institute (BARI) together with the International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT) developed and released the wheat variety BARI Gom 33 that is resistant to wheat blast and other common diseases. The new variety provides a 5-8% yield gain over the available popular varieties, as well as being zinc enriched. This study examines the potential economic benefits of BARI Gom 33 in Bangladesh. First, applying a climate analogue model, this study identified that more than 55% of the total wheat area in Bangladesh (across 45 districts) is vulnerable to wheat blast. Second, applying an ex-ante impact assessment framework, this study shows that with an assumed cumulative adoption starting from 2019-20 increasing up to 30% by 2027, the potential economic benefits of the newly developed wheat variety by 2029-30, far exceeds its dissemination costs. Even if dissemination of the new wheat variety is limited to only the ten currently blast-affected districts, the yearly average net benefits amount to USD 0.23-1.6 million. Based on the findings, the international donor agencies are urged to support the national system in scaling out the new wheat variety and wheat research in general to ensure overall food security in South Asia.

Replication data for: Cereal Systems Initiative for South Asia (CSISA) Baseline Household Survey 2010-2011

The Cereal Systems Initiative for South Asia (CSISA) was launched in 2009 with support from the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation (BMGF) and the United States Agency for International Development (USAID). CSISA’s objective is to develop and deploy more efficient, productive and sustainable technologies for the diverse rice-wheat production systems of the Indo-Gangetic Plains (IGP) that ultimately improve food supply and improve the livelihoods of the poor in the region.

The CSISA Baseline Household Survey was conducted in late 2010 and early 2011 across eight of the hub domains in which CSISA was operating during its initial phase. The household survey was designed to inform CSISA management as well as to establish a priori conditions (farming practices, farmer livelihoods, etc.) against which the social, economic and livelihood impacts of CSISA will be evaluated. Pursuant to these objectives, a structured questionnaire was developed in a joint effort of socio-economists from different centers of the CGIAR, as well as agronomists and hub managers. In all, the baseline household survey collected data on
2,567 households across the CSISA hub domains of Haryana, Punjab, eastern Uttar Pradesh, Bihar and Tamil Nadu in India; Dinajpur and Gazipur in Bangladesh; and the Terai region of central Nepal.

Analysis of the baseline data finds that:

The CSISA coverage area is highly diverse in terms of climatological and agro-ecological conditions, cropping patterns, livestock management, land holdings, production practices, yie
lds and other variables. This reinforces the initiative’s site- and context-specific approach to effecting change, but complicates the evaluation of impact across the entire coverage area.

CSISA targeting is generally reflective of the surrounding population in the hub domain. However, evidence of more explicit targeting (e.g., of women-headed households or other vulnerable groups) was found only in the Gazipur hub.

Whereas findings suggest that labor-saving technological change may be a priority in the northwestern hubs (Punjab, Haryana), productivity-enhancing technological change that intensifies production on small landholdings may be a priority for most othe
r hubs.

Poverty and inequality measures indicate significant levels of vulnerability in the Nepal Terai, Bangladesh, eastern UP and Bihar. This may indicate a need for some re-prioritization of CSISA work in favor of Nepal, provided that CSISA’s technologies and approaches are appropriate to its needs.

The role of women in agriculture varies widely across the CSISA hub domains, and is determined largely by social status and social constructs. In general, women provide vital inp
uts into agricultural production, both in terms of labor as well as decision-making. The complexities of these issues suggest the need for more rigorous analysis regarding gender gaps in access to technical knowledge and information, inequalities in participation in key decision-making processes, as well as the impacts of the RCTs that are being promoted under CSISA. This may necessitate the collection of gender-disaggregated data for constraints analysis, technology prioritization among different household types and careful consideration in the design, implementation and evaluation of impact assessments.

Familiarity with RCTs is most limited in Bihar and other eastern hub domains, suggesting the obvious potential for expanding CSISA activities in these areas. That said, sources of information on RCTs are quite domain-specific and vary significantly between CSISA, input retailers and friends/neighbors.

There is evidence from the baseline survey to suggest that while non-adoption is largely driven by insufficient information about several RCTs, disadoption driven by poor yield p
erformance and other factors is a non-trivial phenomenon in the CSISA domains.

Integrating Crop and Livestock Production for Improved Food Security and Livelihoods in Rural Zimbabwe

Integrated crop livestock production systems are among the principal modes of livelihood in rural Zimbabwe. Nonetheless, the dynamics in each of the different components in such systems and the potential impact of technologies that enhance integration of these components at household level is hardly known. Concomitantly, CIMMYT, ICRISAT, ILRI and the government of Zimbabwe have designed and started to implement a project entitled “Integrating crops and livestock for improved food security and livelihoods in rural Zimbabwe”. The project is funded by the Australian Center for International Agricultural Research (ACIAR) and aims at increasing agricultural production through better integration of crop and livestock production and improved market functioning that will contribute to enhanced resilience of communities most vulnerable to food insecurity in rural Zimbabwe. This survey is designed to generate baseline information that will establish references for different measurements to be done in order to develop household typologies and quantify impact of the interventions to be made by or due to the project.